EVALUATION OF BOTANICALS AND FUNGICIDES AGAINST SEED BORNE FUNGI AND GERMINATION OF ROUGH LEMON SEEDS

Haris khalid, Muhammad J. Jaskani, Muhammad Atiq, Sabir H. Khan, Nasir A. Rajput, Irfan Ahmad, Muhammad Azam, Saud Khalid

Abstract


Citrus fruits are grown all over the world, including Pakistan. However, the poor storage conditions for citrus seeds in tropical and sub-tropical regions compromise their viability during growth. In this study, M. olifera (Moringa) and A. niger (Neem) leaves were used as seed coating agents and were utilized for the first time without any deep treatment of such leaves with an objective to reduce the cost of botanical fungicides and to control the harmful effects of synthetic fungicides. Topsin-M, a synthetic fungicide, was used as a reference compound to compare the results of fungicides from botanical sources than that of a traditionally available synthetic fungicide. Three different concentration of fungicide solutions (C1, C2 and C3), that were coated on the surface of seeds for different duration of time (8, 10 and 12h), were prepared. It was observed that the coating of seeds with fungicides, either botanical or synthetic, significantly improved the horticultural (germination %age and number of days required for germination) and pathological (fungi %age and number of contaminated seeds) parameters of rough lemon, as compare to control or non-coated seed samples. It is expected that the findings of this study will promote the use of botanicals as seed coating agent as they are readily available to famers and are also acceptable for the cultivation of organic crops.


Keywords


Pre-sowing treatment, Seed coating, fungicide, Azaderachta indica, Citrus jambhiri, Moringa oleifera, Topsin-M.

Full Text:

PDF

References


FAO. 2017. Production year book. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Abdul, R. 2012. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and its management. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11.

Armarkar, S. 2011. Role of Pseudomonas fluorescens and bioagents in management of root rot collar rot and growth response in citrus root stock. Ph. D. Thesis (Unpub.) Dr. PDKV, Akola.

Basra, S., M. Zia, T. Mehmood, I. Afzal and A. Khaliq. 2002. Comparison of different invigoration techniques in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Pakistan Journal of Arid Agriculture, Pakistan.

Capron, I., F. Corbineau, F. Dacher, C. Job, D. Côme and D. Job. 2000. Sugarbeet seed priming: effects of priming conditions on germination, solubilization of 11-S globulin and accumulation of LEA proteins. Seed Science Research, 10: 243-254.

El-Hamied, S. A. A. and E. I. El-Amary. 2015. Improving growth and productivity of “pear”trees using some natural plants extracts under north sinai conditions. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 8: 1-9.

El-Keblawy, A. and A. Al-Rawai. 2006. Effects of seed maturation time and dry storage on light and temperature requirements during germination in invasive Prosopis juliflora. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 201: 135-143.

Farooq, M., T. Aziz, A. Wahid, D.-J. Lee and K. H. M. Siddique. 2009. Chilling tolerance in maize agronomic and physiological approaches. Crop and Pasture Science, 60: 501.

Farooq, M., S. M. Basra, M. Hussain, H. Rehman and B. Saleem. 2007. Incorporation of polyamines in the priming media enhances the germination and early seedling growth in hybrid sunflower Helianthus annuus L. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9: 868-872.

Farooq, M., S. M. A. Basra, I. Afzal and A. Khaliq. 2006. Optimization of hydropriming techniques for rice seed invigoration. Seed Science and Technology, 34: 507-512.

Farooq, M., S. M. A. Basra, H. Rehman and M. Hussain. 2008. Seed Priming with Polyamines Improves the Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Fine Rice. Journal of New Seeds, 9: 145-155.

Gade, R. 2012. Biological and chemical management of Phytophthora root rot/collar rot in citrus nursery. The BIOSCAN, 7: 631-635.

Gamboa-deBuen, A., R. Cruz-Ortega, E. Martínez-Barajas, M. E. Sánchez-Coronado and A. Orozco-Segovia. 2006. Natural priming as an important metabolic event in the life history of Wigandia urens (Hydrophyllaceae) seeds. Physiologia Plantarum, 128: 520-530.

Howell, C. R. 2007. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed treatments on pre- and postemergence damping-off in cotton. Phytopathology, 97: 66-71.

I. El -Desouky, M. and S. A. A. El- Hamied. 2014. Improving growth and productivity of pomegranate fruit trees planted on sandy dunes slopes at Baloza district (N. Sinai) Using different methods of drip irrigation, organic fertilization, and soil mulching. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7: 86-97.

javeed, M. A. 2017. Fruits, vegetables and condiments statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of National Food Security and Research, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 1-2.

Kaur, S., A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur. 2005. Seed priming increases crop yield possibly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 191: 81-87.

Khan, M. M., M. A. Alam, M. Abbas and M. J. Iqbal. 2003. Studies on seed desiccation tolerance in four citrus species. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 40: 55-62.

Khan, M. M., K. Thompson, M. Usman and B. Fatima. 2002. Role of moisture content and controlled atmosphere in citrus seed storage. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 4: 259-266.

Kibinza, S., J. Bazin, C. Bailly, J. M. Farrant, F. Corbineau and H. El-Maarouf-Bouteau. 2011. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming. Plant Science, 181: 309-315.

Mahmood, M. A. and A. Sheikh. 2006. Citrus export system in Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture Research, 44: 229-238.

Mahmoud, D. A., N. M. Hassanein, K. A. Youssef and M. A. Abou Zeid. 2011. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 42: 1007-1016.

Misra, N. and U. Dwivedi. 2004. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance of green gram cultivars. Plant Science, 166: 1135-1142.

Nascimento, W. M. 2003. Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming. Scientia Agricola, 60: 71-75.

R Ramjegathesh, S. V. 2014. Bio control potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Coleus root rot disease. Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, 05.

Rehman, A., N. Javed, A. U. Malik and S. Mehboob. 2012. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and its management. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11: 2199-2203.

Sarlikioti, V., S. M. Driever and L. F. M. Marcelis. 2010. Photochemical reflectance index as a mean of monitoring early water stress. Annals of Applied Biology, 157: 81-89.

Sedghi, M., A. Nemati and B. Esmaielpour. 2010. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of two medicinal plants under salinity. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 22: 130.

Selvarani, K. and R. Umarani. 2011. Evaluation of seed priming methods to improve seed vigour of onion Allium cepa cv. aggregatum and carrot Daucus carota. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7: 857-867.

Shehzad, M., M. Ayub, A. Ahmad and M. Yaseen. 2012. Influence of priming techniques on emergence and seedling growth of forage sorghum Sorghum bicolor L. Journal of Animals and Plant Science, 22: 154-158.

Vanangamudi, K., M. Vanangamudi, A. Venkatesh, R. V. Rai, R. Umarani and S. Balaji. 2000. Effect of osmotic priming on seed germination and vigour of neem Azadirachta indica. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 12: 181-184.

Zeinab, A. a. M. M. I. 2011. Hydropriming influence on seedling vigour in rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L. Journal of Fishries and Hydrobiology, 6: 491-494.

Zubbair, N. A. 2009. Studies on nutritional requirement of Colletotrochum habisci (Tracy & Earle.). International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research, 1: 55-61.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      
   
Pakistan Journal of Phytopathological
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.