Insha Saeed, Sabir H. khan, Abdul Rasheed, Muhammad M. Jahangir, Abdul Jabbar, Hafiz M.F. Shaheen, Wasi U. Din, Komal Mazhar


Alternaria leaf spot is a severe disease of turnip which produces necrotic spots on leaves. In the current study, six varieties of turnip were tested against this pathogen to check their susceptibility. Among these, purple gold variety was moderately susceptible on which three antagonistic bacteria i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces hydrogenans and Pseudomonas flourescene were evaluated against Alternaria brassicocola with three different concentrations 2, 3 and 5%. Among these B. subtilis gave best control with 23.852% disease incidence followed by Streptomyces hydrogenans (22.183%), Pseudomonas flourescene (21.742%) as compare to control. The pure sample was further used for dual culture technique and the inhibition zone technique against target pathogen. Results from the dual culture test exhibited that all the antagonistic bacteria repressed mycelial progress of pathogenic fungus but B. subtilis effectively reduced the development of fungi within 7 days with difference of 3.1Cm; Streptomyces hydrogenans inhibited the growth within 12 days of incubation with difference of 2.9Cm while Pseudomonas flourescene was also shown competitive effect but inhibit the growth after 15 days of incubation with difference of 1.12Cm. In case of inhibition zone technique three antagonistic bacteria with three different concentrations of 2, 3 and 5mL were effectively used against A. brassicocola. Among these three antagonistic bacterial isolates B. subtilis significantly exhibited the strongest antagonism against A. brassicocola with 2mL concentration followed by Streptomyces hydrogenans and Pseudomonas flourescene. A distinct inhibition zone of each treatment was measured. However, B. subtilis (2.8190Cm) gave a significantly greater diameter of inhibition zone than S. hydrogenans (2.8095) and P. flourescene (2.5048) after seven days of incubation respectively. Data were examined statistically to certify usefulness of bacterial antagonists against Alternaria brassicocola.


A. brassicocola, B. subtilis, P. flourescene, S. hydrogenanas, Biological control, Turnip.

Full Text:



Abbo, A. S., M. O. Idris and A. M. Hammad. 2014. The antifungal effects of four tomato rhizosphere Bacillus spp. against Alternaria alternata. International Journal of Science and Research, 3: 1324-1328.

Abdalla, S., S. A. A. Algam, E. A. Ibrahim and A. M. El Naim. 2014. In Vitro Screening of Bacillus Isolates for Biological Control of Early Blight Disease of Tomato in Shambat Soil. World Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 47-50.

Ali, G. S., A. S. A. El-Sayed, J. S. Patel, K. B. Green, M. Ali, M. Brennan and D. Norman. 2015. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 82: 478-490.

Ankur, V., Kumar, S., Shina, H.A. Jaiswal, S. 2018. Evaluate the efficacy of bio-control agents and botanicals against early blight of potato caused by Alternaria solani. . Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 7: 28-30.

Anuj, M., R. Roychowdhury and J. Tah. 2013. Alternaria pathogenicity and its strategic controls. Research Journal of Biology, 1: 1-9.

Arun, K. 2008. Biocontrol of plant diseases: Need to tap the options. Journal of Arid Legumes, 5: 99-108.

Babu, S., K. Seetharaman, R. Nandakumar and I. Johnson. 2000. Biocontrol efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Alternaria solani and tomato leaf blight disease. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 8: 252-254.

Baffoni, L., F. Gaggia, N. Dalanaj, A. Prodi, P. Nipoti, A. Pisi, B. Biavati and D. Di Gioia. 2015. Microbial inoculants for the biocontrol of Fusarium spp. in durum wheat. BMC Microbiology, 15: 242-242.

Barari, H., S. M. Cook, S. J. Clark and I. H. Williams. 2005. Effect of a turnip rape (Brassica rapa) trap crop on stem-mining pests and their parasitoids in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Biocontrol, 50: 69-86.

Baysal, Ö., D. Lai, H.-H. Xu, M. Siragusa, M. Çalışkan, F. Carimi, J. A. T. Da Silva and M. Tör. 2013. A proteomic approach provides new insights into the control of soil-borne plant pathogens by Bacillus species. PLoS One, 8: e53182.

Chandrakar, S. and A. K. Gupta. 2018. Studies on the Production of Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Compound Polypeptide (Actinomycins) and Lipopeptide (Fengycin) from Streptomyces sp. K-R1 Associated with Root of Abutilon indicum against Multidrug Resistant Human Pathogens. International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, 25: 779-798.

Chatterjee, C., M. Paul, L. Xie and W. A. van der Donk. 2005. Biosynthesis and Mode of Action of Lantibiotics. Chemical Reviews, 105: 633-684.

Chen, H., X. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zheng and Z. Yu. 2008. Antagonistic effects of volatiles generated by Bacillus subtilis on spore germination and hyphal growth of the plant pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Biotechnology letters, 30: 919-923.

Choudhary, D. K. and B. N. Johri. 2009. Interactions of Bacillus spp. and plants – With special reference to induced systemic resistance (ISR). Microbiological Research, 164: 493-513.

Das, M. P., P. V. Devi and Y. Yasmine. 2015. A study on antagonistic potential of bacteria against phytopathogenic fungi. international Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 34: 191-193.

Deleu, M., M. Paquot and T. Nylander. 2008. Effect of fengycin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, on model biomembranes. Biophysics Journal, 94: 2667-2679.

Errakhi, R., F. Bouteau, A. Lebrihi and M. Barakate. 2007. Evidences of biological control capacities of Streptomyces spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii responsible for damping-off disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23: 1503-1509.

Filzmoser, P., K. Hron and M. Templ. 2018. Compositional Tables. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer International Publishing, 227-243.

Garba, M., H. Makun, A. Jigam, H. Muhammad and B. Patrick. 2017. Incidence and toxigenicity of fungi contaminating sorghum from Nigeria. World Journal of Microbiology, 4: 105-114.

Gautam, N. and N. Sharma. 2009. Bacteriocin: safest approach to preserve food products. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 49: 204-211.

Getha, K., S. Vikineswary, W. H. Wong, T. Seki, A. Ward and M. Goodfellow. 2005. Evaluation of Streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of Fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 32: 24-32.

Gul, N. and H. Tak, 2016. Prevalence of Trichuris spp. in small ruminants slaughtered in Srinagar District (J&K). Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40: 741-744.

Kaur, T. and R. K. Manhas. 2013. Antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 54: 1175-1185.

Kim, P. I., J. Ryu, Y. H. Kim and Y.-T. Chi. 2010. Production of Biosurfactant Lipopeptides Iturin A, Fengycin and Surfactin A from Bacillus subtilis CMB32 for Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20: 138-145.

Kokalis–Burelle, N., C. S. Vavrina, E. N. Rosskopf and R. A. Shelby. 2002. Plant and Soil, 238: 257-266.

Kumar, P., R. C. Dubey and D. K. Maheshwari. 2012. Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere showed plant growth promoting and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens. Microbiological Research, 167: 493-499.

Li, C. X., K. Sivasithamparam, G. Walton, P. Salisbury, W. Burton, S. S. Banga, S. Banga, C. Chattopadhyay, A. Kumar, R. Singh, D. Singh, A. Agnohotri, S. Y. Liu, Y. C. Li, T. D. Fu, Y. F. Wang and M. J. Barbetti. 2007. Expression and relationships of resistance to white rust (Albugo candida) at cotyledonary, seedling, and flowering stages in Brassica juncea germplasm from Australia, China, and India. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 58: 259.

Luna, C. L., R. L. R. Mariano and A. M. Souto-Maior. 2002. Production of a biocontrol agent for crucifers black rot disease. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 19: 133-140.

Manhas, R. K. and T. Kaur. 2016. Biocontrol Potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16 toward Alternaria brassicicola to Control Damping Off and Black Leaf Spot of Raphanus sativus. Frontiers in Plant Sciences, 7: 1869-1869.

Manoj, K. M., Singh, R. Tomer, A. 2014. In vitro evaluation of antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas flourescene against fungal pathogen. Journal of Biopesticides, 7: 43-46.

Mardanova, A. M., G. Fanisovna Hadieva, M. Tafkilevich Lutfullin, I. Valer’evna Khilyas, L. Farvazovna Minnullina, A. Gadelevna Gilyazeva, L. Mikhailovna Bogomolnaya and M. Rashidovna Sharipova. 2017. Bacillus subtilis Strains with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi. Agricultural Sciences, 08: 1-20.

Matar, S., S. A. El-Kazz, E. E. Wagih, A. I. El-Diwany, H. E. Moustaf, G. A. Abo-Zai, H. E. Abd-Elsala and E. E. Hafez. 2008. Antagonistic and inhibitory effect of Bacillus subtilis against certain plant pathogenic fungi, I. Biotechnology(Faisalabad), 8: 53-61.

Meah, M. B., F. H. Tumpa and M. A. Hossain. 2017. Effect of media composition on vegetative and reproductive growth of Alternaria brassicicola and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 5: 266-278.

Naglaa H., S. Nakasuji, M. M. Elsharkawy, H. A. Naznin, M. Kubota, H. Ketta and M. Shimizu. 2017. Biocontrol Potential of an Endophytic Streptomyces sp. Strain MBCN152-1 against Alternaria brassicicola on Cabbage Plug Seedlings. Microbes Environment, 32: 133-141.

Qasid, A., S.U. Rehman, I. Jan, M. Ali, M. Faheem, F. Sattar, M. Sayam, M. and W. Sajjad. 2018. Effect of different plant spacing on the production of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) under agro-climatic conditions of Swabi (Pakistan). Pure and Applied Biology, 7: 243-247.

Rakow, G. 2004. Species origin and economic importance of Brassica, Brassica. Springer, 54: 3-11.

Sakalauskas, S., A. Kačergius, D. Janušauskaitė and D. Čitavičius. 2014. Bacteria with a broad-spectrum of antagonistic activity against pathogenic fungi of cereals. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 101: 185-192.

Sanzani, S. M., M. G. Li Destri Nicosia, R. Faedda, S. O. Cacciola and L. Schena. 2014. Use of quantitative PCR detection methods to study biocontrol agents and phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes in environmental samples. Journal of Phytopathology, 162: 1-13.

Su’udi, M., J. M. Park, S. R. Park, D. J. Hwang, S. C. Bae, S. Kim and I. P. Ahn. 2013. Quantification of Alternaria brassicicola infection in the Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. Microbiology, 159: 1946-1955.

Sumi, C. D., B. W. Yang, I. C. Yeo and Y. T. Hahm. 2015. Antimicrobial peptides of the genus Bacillus: a new era for antibiotics. Canadian journal of microbiology, 61: 93-103.

Sundaramoorthy, S. 2012. Consortial Effect of Endophytic and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for the Management of Early Blight of Tomato Incited by Alternaria solani. Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, 60: 59-67.

Tan, Z., B. Lin and R. Zhang. 2013. A novel antifungal protein of Bacillus subtilis B25. Springerplus, 2: 543-543.

Thangapand, V., P. Ponmurugan and K. Ponmurugan. 2006. Actinomycetes Diversity in the Rhizosphere Soils of Different Medicinal Plants in Kolly Hills-Tamilnadu, India, for Secondary Metabolite Production. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6: 66-70.

Tozlu, E., N. Tekiner, R. Kotan and S. Örtücü. 2018. Investigation on the biological control of Alternaria alternata. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 88: 1241-1247.

Trivedi, P. and A. Pandey. 2008. Plant growth promotion abilities and formulation of Bacillus megaterium strain B 388 (MTCC6521) isolated from a temperate Himalayan location. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 48: 342-347.

Velmurugan, N., M. S. Choi, S. S. Han and Y. S. Lee. 2009. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis against wood-staining fungi: In vitro and in vivo experiments. The Journal of Microbiology, 47: 385-392.

Xu, X. M., P. Jeffries, M. Pautasso and M. J. Jeger. 2011. Combined Use of Biocontrol Agents to Manage Plant Diseases in Theory and Practice. Phytopathology, 101: 1024-1031.

Zaynab, M., M. Fatima, S. Abbas, Y. Sharif, M. Umair, M. H. Zafar and K. Bahadar. 2018. Role of secondary metabolites in plant defense against pathogens. Microbial Pathogenesis, 124: 198-202.

Zhang, Y., H. Zhu, Y. Ye and C. Tang. 2021. Antifungal Activity of Chaetoviridin A from Chaetomium globosum CEF-082 Metabolites Against Verticillium dahliae in Cotton. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 34: 758-769



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Sabir Hussain khan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.