Areeba Rauf, Mirza A. Mehmood, Muhammad Ashfaq, Zulfiqar Ali, Rana Binyamin, Iqra Mushtaq


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant portion of the world's population including Pakistan. Among all limiting biotic and abiotic factors, wheat rusts pose a substantial danger to production worldwide and can result in yield losses of over 90% in susceptible varieties or during epidemics. Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici), one of several types of wheat rust, is particularly dangerous to wheat production in Pakistan and cause disease on 70% cultivated area of wheat. Keeping in view the devastating nature of yellow rust pathogen, two-year study 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 was conducted in order to screen out wheat breeding lines against yellow rust followed by its relationship with the environmental variables. In this study, one hundred wheat breeding lines were cultivated in the research area of MNS-University of Agriculture Multan and disease was observed in the months of January-April during 2020-21 and 2021-22. Very low level of disease severity (DS) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) recorded in all the breeding lines. Epidemiological variables play an important role in the disease progression. Hence, out of hundred breeding lines screened in 2020-2021, 88 breeding lines were supposed to be immune to all naturally occurring race(s) of yellow rust and 12 lines were categorized as moderately resistant to moderately susceptible. Similarly, 92 breeding lines were found immune and 8 showed moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response out of 100 breeding lines during 2021-2022. The findings showed that a high proportion of wheat breeding lines showed no response towards the disease and supposed to be immune. The results from the correlation and regression analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between the maximum, minimum temperature with yellow rust severity (%). While, there was a negative correlation of humidity during 2020-2021 and positive during 2021-2022. Sunshine hours showed the positive relationship with the yellow rust severity (%) during 2020-2021 and negative during 2021-2022. Current study revealed that breeding lines and pathogen were present, which was responsible for the disease in few breeding lines, while epidemiological factors were non-favorable for the disease to develop and progress at large scale. The findings of the current research clearly showed the importance of epidemiological factor which leads toward less disease development. The analysis of natural conditions with yellow rust helps to predict yellow rust outbreak and appropriate management strategies.


Wheat: Puccinia striiformis; Yellow rust; Epidemiological factor.

Full Text:



Ahmad, D., M. Afzal and A. Rauf. 2019. Analysis of wheat farmers’ risk perceptions and attitudes: evidence from Punjab, Pakistan. Natural Hazards, 95:845-861.

Ali, Y., M.A. Khan, H.M. Aatif, A. Javed, M. Ijaz, M. Bashair, A.A. Khan, M. Zeeshan and K.R. Mansha. 2020. Characterization of environmental conditions conducive for stripe rust epidemic on wheat, International Journal of Biosciences, 17: 75-84.

Aryal, J.P., T.B. Sapkota, R. Khurana, A. Khatri-Chhetri, D.B. Rahut and M.L. Jat. 2020. Climate change and agriculture in South Asia: Adaptation options in smallholder production systems. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 22: 5045-5075.

Chakraborty, S., J. Luck, G. Hollaway, G. Fitzgerald and N. White. 2011. Rust-proofing wheat for a changing climate. Euphytica, 179: 19-32.

Chen, X. 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat, Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 27:314-337.

Elshamy, M.M., M.E. Mohamed, S.E. Eldesoky and S.M. Saleh. 2022. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Epidemic of Wheat Yellow Rust in Gharbia Governorate of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 100: 294-301.

Figueroa, M., K.E. Hammond‐Kosack and P.S. Solomon. 2018. A review of wheat diseases a field perspective. Molecular plant pathology, 19: 1523-1536.

Goutam, U., S. Kukreja, R. Tiwari, A. Chaudhury, R.K. Gupta, B.B. Dholakia and R. Yadav. 2013. Biotechnological approaches for grain quality improvement in wheat: present status and future possibilities. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7: 469-483.

Hassan, A., M.U. Akram, M.A. Hussain, M.A. Bashir, Y.S. Mostafa, S.A. Alamri and M. Hashem. 2022. Screening of different wheat genotypes against leaf rust and role of environmental factors affecting disease development. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 34:101991.

Kasa, D. and T. Negash. 2021. Evaluation of Ethiopian Wheat Germplasm Against Yellow Rust (Puccinia striiformis) Disease Under Field Condition. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 10:61.

Khan, A.Y. 1994. Sensitivity analysis and component modelling of a packed‐type liquid desiccant system at partial load operating conditions. International Journal of Energy Research, 18: 643-655.

Line, R.F. 2002. Stripe rust of wheat and barley in North America: a retrospective historical review, Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40:75-118.

Lorrain, C., K.C. Gonçalves Dos Santos, H. Germain, A. Hecker and S. Duplessis. 2019. Advances in understanding obligate biotrophy in rust fungi, New Phytologist, 222: 1190-1206.

Markell, S. and E. Milus. 2008. Emergence of a novel population of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in eastern United States. Phytopathology, 98: 632-639.

Mateen, A. and M.A. Khan. 2014. Identification of yellow rust virulence pattern on wheat germplasm in relation to environmental conditions in Faisalabad. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Care, 4: 2224-3208.

Milus, E. and R. Line. 1986. Gene action for inheritance of durable, high-temperature, adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat, Phytopathology, 76:435-411.

Peterson, R.F., A. Campbell and A. Hannah. 1948. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity on leaves and stems of cereals, Canadian Journal of Research, 26:496-500.

Rahman, S., Q. Xuebin, L. Riaz, G. Yasin, A. Noor Shah, U. Shahzad, M. Shah Jahan, A. Ditta, M.A. Bashir, A. Rehim and Z. Du. 2021. The interactive effect of pH variation and cadmium stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, physiological and biochemical parameters. Plos one, 16: e0253798.

Rapilly, F. 1979. Yellow rust epidemiology, Annual Review of Phytopathology, 17:59-73.

Robert, P., J. Auzanneau, E. Goudemand, F.-X. Oury, B. Rolland, E. Heumez, S. Bouchet, J. Le Gouis and R. Rincent. 2022. Phenomic selection in wheat breeding: identification and optimisation of factors influencing prediction accuracy and comparison to genomic selection. Theoretical and Applied Genetics,1-20.

Sandhu, S.K., L.K. Dhaliwal and P.P.S. Pannu. 2017. Effect of weather parameters on incidence and severity of stripe rust in wheat under natural and artificial conditions. Journal of Agrometeorology, 19: 272-277.

Savary, S., L. Willocquet, S.J. Pethybridge, P. Esker, N. Mcroberts and A. Nelson. 2019. The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 3: 430-439.

Sendhil, R., B. Kumari, S. Khandoker, S. Jalali, K.K. Acharya, K. Gopalareddy, G.P. Singh and A.K. Joshi. 2022. Wheat in Asia: Trends, Challenges and Research Priorities. In New Horizons in Wheat and Barley Research Springer, Singapore. pp. 33-61.

Wellings, C.R. 2011. Global status of stripe rust: a review of historical and current threats. Euphytica, 179: 129-141.

Yadav, S.B. 1985. Classifying an organization to identify its information requirements: A comprehensive framework. Journal of Management Information Systems, 2: 39-60.

Yohannes, T., K. Ngugi, E. Ariga, T. Abraha, N. Yao, P. Asami and A. Monday. 2016. Genotypic variation for low Striga germination stimulation in sorghum “Sorghum bicolor (L) moench” landraces from eritrea. American Journal of Plant Science, 7: 2470-2782.

Zerihun, A.A., G.M. Abebile, L.T. Hadis, T.N. Gure, D.K. Taklemariam, F. Yirga, H. Tesfaye and S.R. Gemeda. 2021. Evaluation of Stripe Rust (Puccinia striformis f. sp. Tritici) Resistance in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes in Ethiopia. Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering, 9:25.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.034.02.0811


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Areeba Rauf, Muhammad Ashfaq, Zulfiqar Ali, Mirza Abid Mehmood

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.