khalid Naveed, Muhammad S. Hussain


Leaf curl disease in chilli is an important yield constraint in chilli production in Pakistan and India. In this study, four chilli lines / varieties were grown under field conditions and development of disease on each variety was studied in relation to environmental factors. Effect of environmental factors including maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on whitefly population and chilli leaf curl disease development was investigated throughout the crop growth period. Increase in maximum and minimum temperature resulted in increase in whitefly population. However, temperature was negatively correlated with disease development. Rainfall had a negative effect on whitefly population whereas it was positively correlated with disease development. Relative humidity was positively correlated with disease development whereas whitefly population was reduced due to increase in relative humidity. Extracts of neem, eucalyptus and akk were used for the management of disease at 1%, 2% and 5% concentrations which were found effective in disease management.


Chilli leaf curl disease, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, Bemisia tabaci

Full Text:



Baldin, E. L. L., T. L. M. Fanela, L. E. R. Pannuti, M. J. Kato, R. Takeara and A. E. M. Crotti. 2015. Botanical extracts: alternative control for silver leaf whitefly management in tomato Extratos botânicos: controle alternativo para o manejo de mosca-branca em tomateiro. Horticultura Brasileira, 33: 59-65.

Berke, T. 2002. The Asian vegetable research and development center pepper project. Proceeding of the 16th International Pepper Conference Tampico. Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Bosland, P. and E. Votava. 2000. Peppers: vegetable and spices Capsicums. Crop Production science in Horticulture. CAB International Publishing. Wallingford, England.

Broadbent, L. and J. T. Fletcher. 1963. The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. Annals of Applied Biology, 52: 233-241.

Clifton, D. J. 2006. Capsicum. The Genus Capsicum. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants—Industrial Profiles. Economic Botany, 60: 297-298.

Cronin, J. R. 2002. The Chili Pepper's Pungent Principle: Capsaicin Delivers Diverse Health Benefits. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 8: 110-113.

deNardo, E. A. B., A. S. Costa, A. L. Lourenção and A. L. Lourencao. 1997. Melia azedarach Extract as an Antifeedant to Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). The Florida Entomologist, 80: 92.

Dimetry, N. Z., A. A. Gomaa, A. A. Salem and A. S. H. Abd-El-Moniem. 1996. Bioactivity of some formulations of neem seed extracts against the whiteflyBemisia tabaci (Genn.). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 69: 140-141.

FAO. 2003. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Yearbook of the United Nations 2003. United Nations, pp. 1510-1511.

Gahukar, R. T. 2000. Use of neem products/pesticides in cotton pest management. International Journal of Pest Management, 46: 149-160.

H., S., S. Khalid and I. Ahmad. 2001. Prevalence and Distribution of Four Pepper Viruses in Sindh, Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1: 214-217.

Hameed, S., H. Shah, H. Ali and S. Khalid. 1995. Prevalence of chilli viruses in Pakistan. Fifth National Congress of Plant Sciences. pp. 28-30.

Hassan, S., M. Arif and T. Defoer. 1993. Epidemiological studies of tomato viruses in Malakand Agency of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 9: 37-43.

Imran, M., M. A. Khan, M. Fiaz, M. Azeem and M. Mustafa. 2013. Influence of Environmental Conditions on Tomato Mosaic Virus Disease Development Under Natural Condition. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 25: 117-122.

Iqbal, S., M. Ashfaq and H. Shah. 2012. Prevalence and Distribution of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in major Chilli Growing Areas of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot, 44: 1749-1754.

Kumar, S., S. Kumar, M. Singh, A. K. Singh and M. Rai. 2006. Identification of host plant resistance to pepper leaf curl virus in chilli (Capsicum species). Scientia Horticulturae, 110: 359-361.

Makkouk, K. and D. Gumpf. 1974. Further identification of naturally occurring virus diseases of pepper in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 58: 1002-1006.

Marín, A., F. Ferreres, F. A. Tomás-Barberán and M. I. Gil. 2004. Characterization and Quantitation of Antioxidant Constituents of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52: 3861-3869.

Reilly, C. A., D. J. Crouch and G. S. Yost. 2001. Quantitative Analysis of Capsaicinoids in Fresh Peppers, Oleoresin Capsicum and Pepper Spray Products. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46: 14999J.

Shah, H. and S. Khalid. 1999. Current status of four chili viruses in Sindh, Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. 2nd National Conference of Plant Pathology. University of Agriculture Faisalabad, pp. 55-59.

Shah, H., S. Khalid and I. Ahmad. 2001. Prevalence and distribution of four pepper viruses in Sindh, Punjab and North west frontier province. Biological Sciences, 1: 214-217.

Steel, R. and R. Torrie. 1997. Principles and Procedure of Statistic, A Biometry Approach. Ke-3. Singapura: Mc Grawh-Hill, Inc.

Tukey, J. W. 1949. Comparing Individual Means in the Analysis of Variance. Biometrics, 5: 99.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.029.02.0333


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 khalid Naveed, Muhammad S. Hussain

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.