Seyedmohammadreza Ojaghian, Meisam Saremi, Saeid Pashaei


The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal activity and resistance inducing potential of crude extracts derived from neem (Azadirachta indica) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) against three isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of mustard white mold under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, enzymatic tests were carried out to assess the effect of crude extracts on activities of resistance-inducing enzymes in mustard leaves. The results showed that ethanol extracts of neem and ginger at concentration 2 g/l were able to reduce mycelial growth of the pathogen (isolate 3) by 61.5 and 44.3%, respectively. The ethanol extracts of neem and ginger at concentration 2 g/l reduced infection radius on plant leaves from 9.7 in control to 3.1 and 3.4, respectively, due to antifungal efficacy. In addition, ethanol extracts of neem and ginger at concentration 2 g/l decreased infection radius (isolate 1) on plant leaves from 9.5 in control to 2.1 and 2.3, respectively, seven days after application. Enzymatic analyses showed significant increase in level of chitinases, β-1,3-glucanase, Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and Peroxidase due to application of ethanol extracts of neem and ginger.


Ethyl acetate; Ethanol; Chitinases; PPO; PAL

Full Text:



Abou-Jawdah, Y., H. Sobh and A. Salameh. 2002. Antimycotic Activities of Selected Plant Flora, Growing Wild in Lebanon, against Phytopathogenic Fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50: 3208-3213.

Boland, G. J. and R. Hall. 1994. Index of plant hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16: 93-108.

Bradford, M. 1976. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254.

Castillo, F., D. Hernández, G. Gallegos, M. Mendez, R. Rodríguez, A. Reyes and C. N. Aguilar. 2010. In vitro antifungal activity of plant extracts obtained with alternative organic solvents against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Industrial Crops and Products, 32: 324-328.

Chandra, S., K. Choure, R. C. Dubey and D. K. Maheshwari. 2007. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 38: 124-130.

Chattopadhyay, C., P. Meena, R. K. Sastry and R. Meena. 2003. Relationship among pathological and agronomic attributes for soil borne diseases of three oilseed crops. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 31: 127-128.

Coventry, E. and E. Allan. 1996. The effect of neem based products on bacterial and fungal growth. Practice Oriented Results on Use and Production of Neem-Ingredients and Pheromones. Proceedings 5th Workshop, Wetzlar, Germany. pp. 22-25.

Govindachari, T. R., G. Suresh, G. Gopalakrishnan, B. Banumathy and S. Masilamani. 1998. Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil of Azadirachta indica. Phytoparasitica, 26: 109-116.

Govindachari, T., G. Suresh, B. Banumathy, S. Masilamani, G. Gopalakrishnan and G. K. Kumari. 1999. Antifungal activity of some B, D-seco limonoids from two meliaceous plants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25: 923-933.

Hernández Lauzardo, A. N., S. Bautista Baños and M. G. Velázquez del Valle. 2007. Prospectiva de extractos vegetales para controlar enfermedades postcosecha hortofrutícolas. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 30.

Islam, M. and A. Faruq. 2012. Effect of some medicinal plant extracts on damping-off disease of winter vegetable. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17: 1498-1503.

Islam, M., F. Aminuzzaman, M. Islam and M. Zamal. 2006. Seed treatment with plant extract and Vitavax-200 in controlling leaf spot (Bipolaris sorokiniana) with increasing grain yield of wheat. Int. J. of Sustain. Agril. Tech, 2: 15-20.

Jasso de Rodrı́guez, D., D. Hernández-Castillo, R. Rodrı́guez-Garcı́a and J. L. Angulo-Sánchez. 2005. Antifungal activity in vitro of Aloe vera pulp and liquid fraction against plant pathogenic fungi. Industrial Crops and Products, 21: 81-87.

Kull, L. S., W. L. Pedersen, D. Palmquist and G. L. Hartman. 2004. Mycelial Compatibility Grouping and Aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 88: 325-332.

Lira, S., S. Hernández, B. Chavéz, C. Hernández and V. Cuellar. 2007. Biopesticides and biological control. CIQA, Monterrey, México. ISBN 968-844.054-X Mexico.

Mahlo, S. M., L. J. McGaw and J. N. Eloff. 2010. Antifungal activity of leaf extracts from South African trees against plant pathogens. Crop Protection, 29: 1529-1533.

McDowell, J. M. and B. J. Woffenden. 2003. Plant disease resistance genes: recent insights and potential applications. Trends in Biotechnology, 21: 178-183.

Metraux, J. P., P. Ahlgoy, T. Staub, J. Speich, A. Steinemann, J. Ryals and E. Ward. 1991. Induced Systemic Resistance in Cucumber in Response to 2,6-Dichloro-Isonicotinic Acid and Pathogens. Advances in Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions Vol. 1. Springer Netherlands, pp. 432-439.

Nazma, B. and J. Rao. 1977. Antifungal activity of Gedunin. Curr. Sci, 46: 714-715.

Ogbuewu, I. P., V. U. Odoemenam, H. O. Obikaonu, M. N. Opara, O. O. Emenalom, M. C. Uchegbu, I. C. Okoli, B. O. Esonu and M. U. Iloeje. 2011. The Growing Importance of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in Agriculture, Industry, Medicine and Environment: A Review. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5: 230-245.

Ojaghian, M. 2009. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on potato plants in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 4: 39-41.

Ojaghian, M. R., A. A. Almoneafy, Z. q. Cui, G.-L. Xie, J. Zhang, C. Shang and B. Li. 2013. Application of acetyl salicylic acid and chemically different chitosans against storage carrot rot. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 84: 51-60.

Ojaghian, M. R., H. Jiang, G.-L. Xie, Z.-Q. Cui, J. Zhang and B. Li. 2012. In vitro biofumigation of brassica tissues against potato stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The Plant Pathology Journal, 28: 185-190.

Ojaghian, M. R., J.-Z. Zhang, G.-L. Xie, Q. Wang, X.-L. Li and D.-P. Guo. 2017. Efficacy of UV-C radiation in inducing systemic acquired resistance against storage carrot rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 130: 94-102.

Ojaghian, M. R., X. Sun, L. Zhang, X. Li, G.-L. Xie, J. Zhang and L. Wang. 2015. Effect of E-cinnamaldehyde against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on potato and induction of glutathione S-transferase genes. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 91: 66-71.

Ojaghian, M. R., Y. Chen, S. Chen, Z. q. Cui, G. L. Xie and J. Zhang. 2014. Antifungal and enzymatic evaluation of plant crude extracts derived from cinnamon and rosemary against Sclerotinia carrot rot. Annals of Applied Biology, 164: 415-429.

Ojaghian, M. R., Z.-q. Cui, G.-L. Xie, B. Li and J. Zhang. 2012. Brassica green manure rotation crops reduce potato stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotium. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41: 347-349.

Ojaghian, S., L. Wang, G.-L. Xie and J.-Z. Zhang. 2018. Increased resistance against storage rot in transgenic carrots expressing chitinase chit42 from Trichoderma harzianum. Scientia Horticulturae, 234: 81-86.

Pant, N., H. Garg, K. Madhusudanan and D. Bhakuni. 1986. Sulfurous compounds from Azadirachta indica leaves. Fitoterapia.

Roberti, R., A. Veronesi, A. Cesari, A. Cascone, I. Di Berardino, L. Bertini and C. Caruso. 2008. Induction of PR proteins and resistance by the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea in wheat plants infected with Fusarium culmorum. Plant Science, 175: 339-347.

Sitara, U., I. Niaz, J. Naseem and N. Sultana. 2008. Antifungal effect of essential oils on in vitro growth of pathogenic fungi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40: 409.

Soylu, S., H. Yigitbas, E. M. Soylu and Ş. Kurt. 2007. Antifungal effects of essential oils from oregano and fennel on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103: 1021-1030.

Suleiman, M. and S. Emua. 2009. Efficacy of four plant extracts in the control of root rot disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp). African Journal of Biotechnology, 8.

Tegegne, G., J. C. Pretorius and W. J. Swart. 2008. Antifungal properties of Agapanthus africanus L. extracts against plant pathogens. Crop Protection, 27: 1052-1060.

Wang, J., J. Li, J. Cao and W. Jiang. 2010. Antifungal activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on postharvest diseases in fruits. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4: 1100-1104.

Wojcikowski, K., L. Stevenson, D. Leach, H. Wohlmuth and G. Gobe. 2007. Antioxidant Capacity of 55 Medicinal Herbs Traditionally Used to Treat The Urinary System: A Comparison Using A Sequential Three-Solvent Extraction Process. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 13: 103-110.

Wu, B. M. and K. V. Subbarao. 2008. Effects of soil temperature, moisture, and burial depths on carpogenic germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor. Phytopathology, 98: 1144-1152.

Zhang, Z. Y., G. H. Dai, Y. Y. Zhuge and Y. B. Li. 2008. Protective effect of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn1 extracts against cucumber powdery mildew fungus, Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Crop Protection, 27: 920-925.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Seyedmohammadreza Ojaghian, Meisam Saremi, Saeid Pashaei

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathological
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.