Reza Aghnoum, Ahmad Z. Fizabadi


The effects of tillage methods and crop residue management practices based on conservation and conventional agriculture systems were studied on the population density of plant parasitic nematodes in two different crop rotation systems. The experimental design was a split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replications. Three tillage systems (conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage) were assigned to main plots and three level of residue management (0, 30, and 60%) were assigned to sub plots. The first rotation system include wheat, maize, wheat, melon and wheat and the second rotation system include wheat, canola, wheat, Persian clover, tomato  and wheat. The results of variance analysis on the population densities of plant parasitic nematodes showed that in the first rotation system, the effect of tillage on the population of Filenchus spp. was statistically significant but the effects of tillage, residue retention and the interaction between tillage × residue retention on the population of other plant parasitic nematodes and the total number of plant parasitic nematodes were not statistically significant. In the second rotation system, tillage had a significant effect on the population density of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus thornei), Filenchus spp. and Geocenamus spp. Furthermore the effect of residue retention on the population of Geocenamus spp. and interaction between tillage × residue retention on the population of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus neglectus) and Geocenamus spp. was significant but the effect of tillage, residue retention and the interaction between tillage × residue retention on the population of other plant parasitic nematodes and the total number of plant parasitic nematodes was not significant. The present study indicated that the conservation agriculture practices have no significant influence on the population density of major plant parasitic nematodes under the two crop rotation sequences and do not increase the risk of damage by nematodes.


Agronomic practices, crop residue, farming systems, plant disease, rotation, tillage.

Full Text:



Ahmed, S., C. Piggin, A. Haddad, S. Kumar, Y. Khalil and B. Geletu. 2012. Nematode and fungal diseases of food legumes under conservation cropping systems in northern Syria. Soil and Tillage Research, 121: 68-73.

Bockus, W.W. and J.P. Shroyer. 1998. The impact of reduced tillage on soil-borne plant pathogens. The Annual Review of Phytopathology, 36: 485-500.

Derpsch, R. and T. Friedrich. 2010. Sustainable Crop Production Intensification-The Adoption of Conservation Agriculture Worldwide. In: Proceedings of the 16th ISCO Conference, Santiago Chile, 08-12 November 2010. PP. 265-293.

Dordas. C. 2008. Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 28: 33-46.

Duiker, S.W. and J.C Myers. 2006. Steps toward a successful transition to no-till. The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania.

Duveiller, E., J. Bridge, M. Rutherford and S. Keeling. 2004. Soil Health and Sustainability of the Rice Wheat- Systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series 16. New Delhi, India. PP. 71.

FAO. 2017. Conservation Agriculture. Plant Production and Protection Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Florentín, M.A., M. Peñalva, A. Calegari, , R. Derpsch. 2010. Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation Agriculture on small farms. FAO Report, Integrated Crop Management, 12.

Govaerts, B., M. Mezzalama, K.D. Sayre, J. Crossa, J.M. Nicol and J. Deckers. 2006. Long-term consequences of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on maize/wheat root rot and nematode populations. Applied Soil Ecology, 32: 305-315.

Govaerts, B., M. Mezzalama, Y. Unno, K. Sayre, M. Luna-Guido, M. Vanherck, Dendooven , L. and J. Deckers.2007. Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity. Applied Soil Ecology, 37: 18-30.

Handoo, Z. A. and A. M. Golden. 1989. A key and compendium to the species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (lesion nematodes). Journal of Nematology, 21: 202-218.

Hobbs, P.R. and B. Govaerts. 2010. How conservation agriculture can contribute to buffering climate change. In: M.P. Reynolds (Ed.), Climate change and crop production. CAB International, Cambridge, USA. PP. 177-199.

Hobbs, P. R., K. Sayre and R. Gupta. 2008. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363:543-555.

Hunt, D.J. 1993. Aphelenchidae, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. CAB International , Hertfordshire, UK. PP 352.

Jenkins, W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter. 48:692.

Johnson, A.W., C.C. Dowler and Z.A. Handoo. 2000. Population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and other nematodes and crop yields in rotations of cotton, peanut, and wheat under minimum tillage. Journal of Nematology, 32: 52-61.

Kassam, A., T. Friedrich, F. Shaxson, J. Pretty. 2009. The spread of conservation agriculture: justification, sustainability and uptake. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 7: 292-320.

Katsvairo, T.W., J.R. Rich and R.A. Dunn. 2006. Perennial grass rotation: an effective and challenging tactic for nematode management with many other positive effects. Pest Management Science, 62: 793-796.

Kibblewhite, M.G., K. Ritz, and M.J Swift. 2008. Soil health in agricultural systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363: 685-701.

Krupinsky, J.M., K.L. Bailey, M.P. McMullen, B.D. Gossen and T.K. Turkington. 2002. Managing plant disease risk in diversified cropping systems. Journal of Agronomy, 94: 198-209.

Loof, P.A.A. 1978. The genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) : A review of its anatomy, morphology, distribution, systematics and identification. Landbowhoge school, Wageningen, The Netherlands. PP. 50.

López-Fando, C., A. Bello. 1995. Variability in soil nematode populations due to tillage and crop rotation in semi-arid Mediterranean agrosystems. Soil and Tillage Research, 36: 59-72.

Lupwayi, N.Z., M.A. Monreal, G.W. Clayton, C.A. Grant, A.M Johnston and W.A Rice. 2001.Soil microbial biomass and diversity respond to tillage and sulphur fertilizers. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81: 577-589.

Mashavakure, N., A.B. Mashingaidze, R. Musundire et al. 2018. Short-term Impacts of Tillage and Fertilizer Treatments on Soil and Root Borne Nematodes and Maize Yield in a Fine Textured Cambisol. Journal of Nematology, 50: 329-342.

McLaughlin, A. and P.Mineau. 1995. The impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 55: 201-212.

Nickle, W.R. 1991. Manual of agricultural nematology. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York. PP. 1035.

Nicol, J. and I. Ortiz-Monasterio. 2004. Effects of the root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, on wheat yields in Mexico. Nematology, 6: 485-493.

Nusbaum, C.J. and H. Ferris. 1973. The role of cropping systems in nematode population management. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 11: 423-440.

Okada, H. and H. Harada. 2007. Effects of tillage and fertilizer on nematode communities in a Japanese soybean field. Applied Soil Ecology, 35: 582-598.

Overstreet, L. F, G. D. Hoyt and J. Imbriani .2010. Comparing nematode and earthworm communities under combinations of conventional and conservation vegetable production practices. Soil and Tillage Research, 110: 42-50.

Paulitz T.C. 2006. Low input no-till cereal production in the Pacific Northwest of the US: the challenges of root diseases. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 115: 271-281.

Raaijmakers, J.M., T.C Paulitz, C. Steinberg, C. Alabouvette, Y. Moënne-Loccoz 2009. The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Plant Soil, 321: 341-361.

Ramakrishna, A. and S.B. Sharma. 1998. Cultural practices in rice- wheat-legume cropping systems: Effect on nematode community. In: S.B. Sharma, C. Johansen and S.K. Midha (Eds.) Nematode pests in rice-wheat-legume cropping systems. PP. 73-79.

Singh, R., K.R. Dabur and R. K. Malik. 2005. Long-Term Response of Plant Pathogens and Nematodes to Zero-Tillage Technology in Rice-Wheat Cropping System. Technical Bulletin (7), Regional Research Station, Kaul, Department of Nematology and Directorate of Extension Education, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India. Technical Bullatin, 7: 1-16.

Reid, L.M., X. Zhu and B.L. Ma. 2001. Crop rotation and nitrogen effects on maize susceptibility to gibberella (Fusarium graminearum) ear rot. Plant Soil. 237: 1-14.

Seid, A., C. Piggin, A. Haddad, S. Kumar, K. Khalil and B. Geletu. 2012. Nematode and fungal diseases of food legumes under conservation cropping systems in northern Syria. Soil and Tillage Research, 121: 68-73.

Siddiqi M.R. 1987. Tylenchida, parasites of plants and insects. CAB International , UK. PP. 645.

Spedding, T.A., C. Hamel, G.R. Mehuys, C.A. Madramootoo. 2004. Soil microbial dynamics in maize growing soil under different tillage and residue management systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36: 499-512.

Stirling, G.R. and L.M. Eden. 2008. The impact of organic amendments, mulching and tillage on plant nutrition, Pythium root rot, root-knot nematode and other pests and diseases of capsicum, and implications for the development of more sustainable vegetable farming systems. Australas. Plant Pathology, 37: 123-131.

Thierfelder, C., S. Cheesman and L. Rusinamhodzi. 2013. Benefits and challenges of crop rotations in maize-based conservation agriculture (CA) cropping systems of southern Africa. Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 11: 108-124.

Trenbath B.R. 1993. Intercropping for the management of pests and diseases. Field Crops Research, 34: 381-405.

Verhulst, N., B. Govaerts, E. Verachtert, A. Castellanos-Navarrete, M.Mezzalama, P. Wall, J. Deckers and K.D. Sayre. 2010. Conservatin agriculture, improving soil quality for sustainable productin systems?, in: R. Lal, B.A. Stewart (Eds.), Advances in Soil Science: Food Security and Soil Quality. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. pp. 137-208.

Weller, D.M., J.M. Raaijmakers, B.B.M. Gardener and L.S. Thomashow. 2002. Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40: 309-348.

Westphal, A., L.J. Xing, R. Pillsbury and T.J. Vyn. 2009. Effect of tillage intensity on population densities of Heterodera glycines in intensive soybean production systems. Field Crops Research, 113: 218-226.

Ziadi, N., J.K. Whalen, A.J. Messiga and C. Morel. 2013. Assessment and modeling of soil available phosphorus in sustainable cropping systems. Advances in Agronomy, 122: 85-126.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.030.02.0574


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Reza Aghnoum

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.