EVALUATION OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) SEED AND CASSIA ALATA LEAF EXTRACTS AS SURFACE PROTECTANTS AGAINST SEED BORNE FUNGI OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

Elias N.K. Sowley, Ruth A. Ofori, Frederick Kankam

Abstract


Seed borne fungi constitute a major constraint to maize production and this is aggravated by the use of farmer-saved seeds which may be unhealthy. The study was aimed at testing the efficacy of Cassia alata leaf and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts against seed borne fungi. Maize (Zea mays) seeds were obtained from three farmers in each of ten communities randomly selected from the Tolon-Kumbungu district. Seed borne fungi were isolated from seed samples by plating on PDA. Four fungi belonging to three genera namely Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Penicillium digitatum were isolated from the seed samples. These fungi were grown on PDA plates amended with aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cassia alata leaf and neem seed, carbendazim and sodium hypochlorite and their radial growth measured. Ethanol extracts of C. alata leaf and neem seed were similar but had a higher inhibition than their aqueous extracts. Aqueous extract of C. alata leaf inhibited growth to a significantly higher (P<0.05) extent than aqueous neem seed extract. Although ethanol extracts of C. alata leaf and neem seed had a significantly higher (P<0.05) inhibitory effect, aqueous extract of the former was better than the neem seed extract and may therefore be used by farmers in treating their seeds since ethanol is relatively expensive.


Keywords


Cassia alata, fungi, maize, neem, seed borne

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adjei, F. 2011. Investigation into fungal seed borne pathogens of farmer-saved seed maize (Zea mays L.) collected from three ecological zones of Ghana and efficacy of plant extracts in controlling the pathogens. MSc. Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Barnett H.L. and B.B. Hunter. 2006. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. 4th ed. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Society.

Chatterjee, D. 1990. Inhibition of fungal growth and infection of maize grains by spice oils. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 11: 148-151.

Govender, V., T.A.S. Aveling and Q. Kritzinger. 2008. The effect of traditional storage methods on germination and vigour of maize (Zea mays L.) from northern KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique. South Afr. J. Bot. 74: 190-196.

Hussain N., A. Hussain, M. Ishtiaq, S. Azam, and T. Hussain. 2013. Pathogenicity of two seed-borne fungi commonly involved in maize seeds of eight districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 12(12): 1363-1370.

Kuri, S.K., R.M. Islam, U. Mondal. 2011. Antifungal potentiality of some botanical extracts against important seed borne fungal pathogen associated with brinjal seeds, Solanum melongena L. J. Agric. Technol. 7 (4): 1139-1153.

Mondali, N.K., A. Mojumdar, S.K. Chatterje, A. Banerjee, J.K. Datta and S. Gupta. 2009. Antifungal activities and chemical characterization of Neem leaf extracts on the growth of some selected fungal species in vitro culture medium. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 13(1): 49-53.

Niaz, I. and S. Dawar. 2009. Detection of seed borne mycoflora in maize (Zea mays L.). Pak. J. Bot. 41(1): 443-451.

Okigbo, R.N. and I.A. Nmeka. 2005. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Zingiber officinale. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4:404–807.

Owolade, O.F., A.N. Amusa and Y.O.K. Osikanlu. 2000. Efficacy of certain indigenous plant extracts against seed borne infection of Fusarium moniliforme on maize (Zea mays L.) in South Western Nigeria. Cereal Res. Commun. 28(3): 323-327.

Pandey, D.K., N.N. Tripathi, R.O. Tripathi, S.N. Dixit. 1982. Fungitoxic and Phytotoxic properties of essential oil of Phylis sauvolensis. Pfkrankh. Pfschutz. 89:344-346.

Purseglove, J.W. 1992. Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York. pp. 300-305.

Rahman, M.S., M.Y. Ali and M.U Ali. (2008). In vitro screening of two flavonoid compounds isolated from Cassia alata L. leaves for fungicidal activities. J. Bio-Sc. 16: 139-142.

Saleem, M.J., R. Bajwa, A. Hannan and T.A. Qaiser. 2012. Maize seed storage mycoflora in Pakistan and its chemical control. Pak. J. Bot. 44(2): 807-812.

Sitara, U. and S. Akhter. 2007. Efficacy of fungicides, sodium hypochlorite and neem seed powder to control seed borne pathogens of maize. Pak. J. Bot. 39(1): 285-292.

Somda, I., J. Sanou and P. Sanon. 2008. Seed borne infection of farmer-saved maize seeds by pathogenic fungi and their transmission to seedlings. Plant Pathol. J. 7(1): 98-103.

Suleiman, M.N. 2011. Antifungal properties of leaf extract of neem and tobacco on three

fungal pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Adv. Appl. Sc. Res. 2 (4): 217-220.

Suleiman, M.N. and T.N. Falaiye. 2013. In vitro control on fungus associated with biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) LAM) tubers. FUTA J. Res. Sc. 1: 1-7.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      
   
Pakistan Journal of Phytopathological
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.