Field study on Integrated Disease Management of Cabbage Head Rot caused Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum in Pakistan conditions

Muhammad Ussama Yasin, Amer Habib, Saba Saeed

Abstract


Cabbage head rot caused by fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a very common problem for vegetable growers.  Diseased stem and leaves produce white cottony growth and hard sclerotia. Cabbage is used as fresh green salads thus disease management is not safe and economical by using solely chemical therapy. An integrated approach was designed in 4 years trial evaluation to minimize disease incidence. In first step best treatments were selected by using methods of in-vitro food poison evaluation method, cultural management, soil fumigation and foliar treatments by botanical extracts and modern fungicides. Cultural practices included north south row orientation, crop sanitation by elevated ridges, and humidity management by adjusting irrigation schedule showed control of up to 15%. Pre-planting soil treatment by Thiophenate Methyle and score reduced disease incidence by 50.33%. Among the five bio-extracts foliar application of jatropha extract showed best control of 31%. From four fungicides Amistar Top showed highest control of 73% in 2018 and Score produced best results of 76% in 2019. In second step best treatments were combined in a single application integrated strategy which reduced incidence by 80.5%. Farmers were advised to adopt control methods keeping in mind the extant of disease incidence, economic loss and safety of consumers


Keywords


Integrated Disease Management; Cabbage; Cultural control; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams PB, Ayers WA. 1979. Ecology of Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology. 69:896–898.

Alabouvette, C. and Louvet, J. 1973. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Bibliographie Sclerotionnee (Dec. 1971). Inform. Tech. Centre Tech. Interprof. Oleag. Metrop. 31: 7–26.

Bennett, O. L. and Elliot, E. S. 1972. Plant disease incidence on five forage species as affected by North and South facing slopes. Plant Dis. Reptr. 56: 371–375.

Ben-Yephet, Y., & Bitton, S. 1985. Use of a selective medium to study the dispersal of ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytoparasitica 13:33-40.

Cubeta, M. A., Cody, B. R., Kohli, Y., & Kohn, L. M. (1997). Clonality in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on infected cabbage in eastern North Carolina. Phytopathology(87), 1000-1004.

Dalili, A., Bakhtiari, S., Barari, H., & Aldaghi, M. (2015). Effect of some fungicides against the growth inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycelial compatibility groups. Journal of plant protection research, 55(4).

Dickson, M., & Petzoldt, R. (1994). Breeding for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica oleracea. Paper presented at the ISHS Brassica Symposium-IX Crucifer Genetics Workshop 407.

Dillard, H., & Hunter, J. (1986). Association of common ragweed with Sclerotinia rot of cabbage in New York State. Plant Disease, 70(1), 26-28.

Dillard, H. R. (1987). DISEASES OF CRUCIFERS: Sclerotinia Rot of Cabbage. VEGETABLE CROPS, CORNELL COOPERATIVE EXTENSION, 730.730.

Dillard, H. R., Bellinder, R. R., & Shah, D. A. (2004). Integrated management of weeds and diseases in a cabbage cropping system. Crop Protection, 23(2), 163-168. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(03)00172-8

Dillard, H. R., & Cobb, A. C. (1995). Relationship between leaf injury and colonization of cabbage by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Crop Protection, 14(8), 677-682. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(95)00039-9

Fang, Z., Liu, Y., Lou, P., & Liu, G. (2005). Current Trends in Cabbage Breeding. Journal of New Seeds, 6(2-3), 75-107. doi:10.1300/J153v06n02_05

Fayaz, M., Ullah Jan, A., & Jan, D. (2014). Quality Elasticity of Vegetable Consumption in Pakistan: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Households. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 30(4).

French, R., & Schultz, D. (2009). White Mold of Cabbage [Press release]

Gong, Z., Zhang, M., Bhandari, B., Mujumdar, A. S., & Jin-Cai, S. (2010). Rheological properties of cabbage pulp. International Journal of Food Properties, 13(5), 1066-1073.

Hoes, J., & Huang, H. (1975). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: viability and separation of sclerotia from soil. Phytopathology, 65(12), 1431-1432.

Hou, F., Zhao, L., & Liu, F. (2016). Residues and dissipation of chlorothalonil and azoxystrobin in cabbage under field conditions. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 96(12), 1105-1116. doi:10.1080/03067319.2016.1233969

Hudyncia, J., Shew, H., Cody, B., & Cubeta, M. (2000). Evaluation of wounds as a factor to infection of cabbage by ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 84(3), 316-320.

Jensen, B. D., Massomo, S. M., Swai, I. S., Hockenhull, J., & Andersen, S. B. (2005). Field evaluation for resistance to the black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cabbage (Brassica oleracea). European journal of plant pathology, 113(3), 297-308.

Jones, E. E., Rabeendran, N., & Stewart, A. (2014). Biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection of cabbage by Coniothyrium minitans and Trichoderma spp. Biocontrol science and technology, 24(12), 1363-1382.

Loganathan, M., Sible, G., Maruthasalam, S., Saravanakumar, D., Raguchander, T., Sivakumar, M., & Samiyappan, R. (2010). Trichoderma and chitin mixture based bioformulation for the management of head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) deBary)–root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White; Chitwood) complex diseases of cabbage. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 43(10), 1011-1024.

Mahalingam, T., Guruge, B. M. A., Somachandra, K. P., Rajapakse, C. S., & Attanayake, R. N. (2016). First Report of White Mold Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Cabbage in Sri Lanka. Plant Disease, 101(1), 249-249. doi:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0693-PDN

Mahalingam, T., P Somachandra, K., Rajapakse, C., & Attanayake, R. (2017). Evaluation of fungicide resistance of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing cabbage white mold in Sri Lanka.

McLean, D. (1958). Role of dead flower parts in infection of certain crucifers by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Plant Dis. Rep, 42(663), 666.

Mila, A., Carriquiry, A., Zhao, J., & Yang, X. (2003). Impact of management practices on prevalence of soybean Sclerotinia stem rot in the north-central United States and on farmers' decisions under uncertainty. Plant Disease, 87(9), 1048-1058.

Mirza, M. S., & Ahmad, Y. (1988). Cabbage : a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan. Agronomie, EDP Sciences, 1(8), 85-87. doi:hal-00885073

Pandey, A., Mathew, A. J., Kamle, M., Mishra, R. K., & Kumar, P. (2012). Efficacy of fungicides for control of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib.) de Bary in lima bean. Journal of Horticultural Science, 7(1), 114-117.

Pandey, D., Tripathi, N., Tripathi, R., & Dixit, S. (1982). Fungitoxic and phytotoxic properties of the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens/Fungitoxische und phytotoxische Eigenschaften des ätherischen Öis von Hyptis suaveolens. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz/Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 344-349.

Saharan, G. S., & Mehta, N. (2008). Sclerotinia Diseases of Crop Plants: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management. USA: Springer.

Sanogo, S., Lujan, P. A., & Baucom, D. (2015). First Report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Cabbage in New Mexico. Plant Disease, 99(6), 891. doi:10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1328-PDN

Sherf, A. F., & MacNab, A. A. (1986). Vegetable diseases and their control: John Wiley & Sons.

Singh, B., Sharma, S., & Singh, B. (2010). Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage: variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. Scientia Horticulturae, 124(1), 9-13.

Tores, J., & Moreno, R. (1991). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: epidemiological factors affecting infection of greenhouse aubergine crops. Journal of Phytopathology, 132(1), 65-74.

Turkington, T., & Morrall, R. (1993). Use of petal infestation to forecast Sclerotinia stem rot of canola: the influence of inoculum variation over the flowering period and canopy density. Phytopathology, 83(6), 682-689.

Wang, J.-p., Xu, Y.-p., Zang, X.-p., Li, S.-s., & Cai, X.-z. (2016). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum virulence is affected by mycelial age via reduction in oxalate biosynthesis. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(5), 1034-1045. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61199-6

Young, C., & Werner, C. (2012). Infection routes for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in apetalous and fully petalled winter oilseed rape. Plant Pathology, 61(4), 730-738.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.030.02.0582

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Ussama Yasin, Amer Habib, Saba Saeed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      
   
Pakistan Journal of Phytopathological
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.