SURVEILLANCE OF CITRUS CANKER IN PESHAWAR DIVISION AND ITS MANAGEMENT THROUGH HOST RESISTANCE

Basharat Mehmood, Muhammad Tariq-Khan, Hafiz Matee-ur-Rehman, Muhammad T. Younas

Abstract


The present study was conducted to record incidence and severity of citrus canker and to screen citrus species against this disease. A detailed survey was conducted in 19 nurseries and 13 commercial orchards of Peshawar division during 2011. It was observed that almost all the nurseries were severely affected by the disease. The highest disease incidence (100%) and severity (31.54%) were observed in New Tarnab nursery in (Mention name of district here). Among the orchards, Shado II showed comparatively more disease severity (2.92%) as compared to other orchards. Bacteria, isolated from symptomatic plant samples on nutrient agar medium produced small, shiny yellow colonies with smooth margins. Biochemical tests further confirmed the bacteria as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Detached and attached leaf assays were made to check the resistance of four citrus species i.e. Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), C. aurantifola (kaghazi lemon), C. paradise (Grape fruit) and C. medica (Lime). C. medica was moderately resistant whereas C. sinensis was found to be the most susceptible against the disease. Present study will be useful for developing best possible solution for the management of citrus canker in Peshawar division.


Keywords


Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri; sweet orange; lemon; host resistance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arif, A. G., M. Akhtar and M. Ibrahim. 1962. Citrus diseases and their control. Punjab Fruit J., 26: 369-70.

Bdliya, B. S. and B. Dahiru. 2006. Efficacy of some plant extracts on the control of potato tuber soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 46: 285-294.

Berger, E. W. 1914. Citrus canker: History of citrus canker in Florida. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull., 124: 27-30.

Broadbent. P., Fahy, P. C., Gillings, M. R., Bradley, J. K., and Barnes, D. 1992. Asiatic citrus canker detected in a pummelo orchard in northern Australia. Plant Disease., 76: 824-829.

Chand, J. N. and V. Pal, 1982. Citrus canker in India and its management. In: Problems of citrus diseases in India (S.P. Raychaudhuri & Y.S Ahlawat, Eds.). Surabhi Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. pp. 21-26.

Civerolo, E. L. 1985. Indigenous Plasmids in X. campestris pv. citri. Phytopathology. 75: 524-528.

Cowan, S. T. 1974. Manual Col the identification of Medical bacteria. Cambridge University Press, Great liritain. 2:38 pp.

EPPO/CAB1. 1992. Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri. In: Quarantine pests for Europe. Smith, I. M.; McNamara, D. G.; Scott, P. R.; Harris, K. M. (Eds.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Gabriel. D. W., Y. P. Duane and C. Ramadugu. 2000. The molecular mechanism of citrus canker pathogenicity and a gene engineering approach to control. Mtn. Soc. Citriculture Cong., Dec. 3-7, Orlando. Florida (Abst.), p. 51.

Gambley, C. F., A. K. Miles, M. Ramsden, V. Doogan, V. Thomas, J. E. Parmenter and P. J. L. Whittle. 2009. The distribution and spread of citrus canker in Emerald, Australia. Auatralian Plant Pathology, 38: 547-557.

Gerhardt. P. 1981. Manual of Methods of General Bacteriology. American Society of Microbiology Washington, D. C. 180-212.

Goto, M. 1992. Citrus canker. In: Plant diseases of international importance. Vol. III. J. Kumar, H. S. Chaube, U. S. Singh & A. N. Mukhopadhyay (Eds.) Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliff, NJ. pp. 170-208.

Gottwald, T. R, J. H. Graham and T. S. Schubert. 2002. Citrus canker the pathogen and its impact. Online. Plant health process. Doi:10.1094/P11P-2002-0812-01-RV. http://plantmnegementnetiwork.orb/pub/phb/review/citruscanker/.

Hugh, R. and E. Leifson. 1953. The taxonomic significance of fermentative versus oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates of various Gram-bacteria Journal of bacteriology, 66:24-26.

MINFA. 2009. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan. Govt. of Pakistan. Ministry of food-Agri. Livestock, Food Agriculture and livestock, Division (Economic wing) Islamabad. 45-46.

Ryu, E. 1940. A simple method of differentiation between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms without staining. Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 17:58-63

Sahi, T. S., M. Usman, M. Alzal, A. Rashed and A. Habib. 2007. Pak. J. Bot., 39(4): 1319-1327.

Schubert., T. S., S. A. Rizvi, X. Sun, T. R. Gottwald, J. H. Graham and W. N. Dixon. 2001. Meeting the challenge of eradicating citrus canker in Florida-Again. Plant Disease., 85: 340-356.

Serizawa, S. Inoue, K. Suzuki, M. 1985. Studies on citrus canker disease. IX. Seasonal changes in disease development and correct timing of bactericidal application. Bulletin of the Shizuoka Perfectural Citrus Experiment Station No. 21, 35-43.

Sierra, G. 1957. A simple method for the detection of lipolytic activity of microorganisms and some observations on the influence of the contact between cells and fatty substances. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek., 23: 15-22

Sothiosorubini, N., R. S. Sundersan and A. Sivapalan, 1986. Studies on Xanthomonas campestris pv citri, causing canker disease of citrus disease of citrus. Vingnanam J. of science, 68(2):82-86.

Stall. R. E. and C. P. Seymour. 1983. Canker, a threat to citrus in the Gulf- Coast States. Plant Dis., 67: 581-585.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. (1980). Principal and procedures of statistics McGraw Hill Book Co. New York (2nd Edition) P: 633.

Sun, L.-C., L. V. Mackey, J. Luo, J. A. Fuselier and D. H. Coy. 2008. Targeted chemotherapy using a cytotoxic somatostatin conjugate to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Clinical medicine. Oncology, 2: CMO. S970.

Vauterin, L., B. Hoste, K. Kersters and J. Swings, 1995. Re-classification of Xanthomonas. Mtn.Intenational Journal of systematic Bacteriology,45: 472-489.

Verniere, C., J. S. Hartung, O. P. Pruvost, E. L. CIverolo, A. M. Alvarez, P. Maestri and J. Luisetti, 1998. Characterization of phenotipical distinct strains Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from Southwest Asia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104: 477-487.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.031.01.0501

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Tahir Younas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      
   
Pakistan Journal of Phytopathological
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.