EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDES AGAINST CITRUS MELANOSE DISEASE IN SARGODHA, PAKISTAN

Umair Anwar, Mustansar Mubeen, Yasir Iftikhar, Muhammad A. Zeshan, Qaiser Shakeel, Ashara Sajid, Muhammad Umer, Aqleem Abbas

Abstract


Citrus fruit is infected by various biotic factors including fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematode and spiroplasma. These biotic factors reduce the quality and quantity of citrus fruit. Among these biotic factors, fungi are playing a major role. Among the fungi, Diaporthe spp. cause significant disease of citrus crop known as citrus melanose. The disease is one of the emerging diseases of citrus trees in Pakistan. The objective of this study was in-vivo monitoring of citrus melanose disease and in-vitro evaluation of six different fungicides (Topsin-M, Copper oxychloride, Success, Aliette, Kumulus and Mancozeb) at different days of intervals. For this purpose, surveys of different citrus growing Tehsils of Sargodha were conducted for the collection of samples from infected citrus groves. Food poisoning technique was used to evaluate fungicides against Diaporthe citri. Three replicates of each fungicide and concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 ppm were used, and data were recorded after 3, 5 and 7-day’s interval. Results revealed that all fungicides significantly inhibited mycelial growth of Diaporthe citri. The maximum percent inhibition was obtained with the application of Mancozeb, while minimum percent inhibition was obtained with the application of Success with values 36% and 8% respectively


Keywords


Citrus, Diaporthe spp., Citrus melanose, Fungicides, Percent inhibition

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bach, W.J. and F.A. Wolf. 1928. The isolation of the fungus that causes citrus melanose and the pathological anatomy of the host. Journal of Agricultural Research, 37:243-252.

Chen, G., L. Jiang, F. Xu and H. Li. 2010. In vitro and in vivo screening of fungicides for controlling citrus melanose caused by Diaporthe citri. Journal of Zhejiang University, 36: 440-444.

Dewdney, M. M and L.W. Timmer. 2011. Citrus Pest Management Guide. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. USA. 145.

FAO. 2018. FAO Production Year Book, FAO, Rome, Italy.

Fitsum, S., M. Amin, T. Selvaraj and A. Alemayehu. 2014. In vitro evaluation of some fungicides and bioagents against common bean anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Sacc. Magnus) Briosi Cavara. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8: 2000-2005.

Gopal, K., M. Lakshmi, S. Sarada, T. Nagalakshmi, T.G. Sankar, V. Gopi and K. Ramana. 2014. Citrus melanose (Diaporthe citri Wolf): A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 3:113-124.

Iftikhar, Y., F. Bakhtawar, I. Hussain, A. Sajid, M. Mubeen, M.A. Zeshan, M.A, Sohail, N. Fatima, M. Umer, S. Iqbal. 2020. Detection of Spiroplasma citri causing citrus stubborn disease in Sargodha, Pakistan International Journal of Botany Studies, 5: 481-485.

Knoema.com/atlas/Pakistan/topics/Agriculture/Crops-Production-Quantity-tonnes/Citrus-fruit-production/2019.

Kuhara, S. 1999. The application of the epidemiologic simulation model "MELAN" to control citrus melanose caused by Diaporthe citri (Faw.) Wolf. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Extension Bulletins, National Fruit Research Institute, Japan. 8: 1-8.

Mondal, S., J.P. Agostini, L. Zhang and L.W. Timmer. 2004. Factors affecting pycnidium production of Diaporthe citri on detached citrus twigs. Plant Disease, 88: 379-382.

Mondal, S., A. Vicent, R. Reis and L.W. Timmer. 2007. Efficacy of pre-and post-inoculation application of fungicides to expanding young citrus leaves for control of melanose, scab, and Alternaria brown spot. Plant Disease, 91: 1600-1606.

Mubeen, M., H. M. I. Arshad, Y. Iftikhar, I. Bilqees, S. Arooj and H.M.A. Saeed. 2015a. In-vitro efficacy of antibiotics against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri through inhabitation zone techniques. International Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, 7: 67-71.

Mubeen, M., H. M. I. Arshad, Y. Iftikhar, M.U. Irfan and I. Bilqees. 2015b. Bio-chemical characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri: a gram-negative bacterium causing citrus canker. Journal of Science & Nature, 6: 151-154.

Rehner, S.A., and F.A. Uecker. 1994. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer phylogeny and host diversity in the Coelomycete phomopsis. Canadian Journal of Botany, 72:1666-1674.

Rossman, A., D. Udayanga, A. Lisa, B. Castle and K. D. Hyde. 2013. Proposal to conserve the name Phomopsis citri H.S. Fawc. (Diaportheci citri), with a conserved type, against Phomopsis citri (Sacc.) Traverso & Spessa (Ascomycota: Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae). Taxon, 62: 627.

Ruehle, G.D. and W.A. Kuntz. 1940. Melanose of Citrus and its commercial control. Bulletin. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, 349: 54.

Sultana, N. and A. Ghaffar. 2013. Effect of fungicides, microbial antagonists and oil cakes in the control of Fusarium oxysporum, the cause of seed rot and root infection of bottle gourd and cucumber. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 45: 2149-2156.

Timmer, LW., S. Zitko and L. Albrigo. 1998. Split applications of copper fungicides improve control of melanose on grapefruit in Florida. Plant Disease, 82: 983-986.

Whiteside, J. 1977. Sites of action of fungicides in the control of citrus melanose. Phytopathology, 67: 1067-1072.

Whiteside, J. 1980. Timing of fungicide spray treatments for citrus melanose control. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. USA.

Wolf, F.A. 1926. The perfect stage of the fungus which causes melanose of citrus. Journal of Agricultural Research, 33:621-625.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.033.01.0576

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Mustansar Mubeen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      
   
Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.