Ngoh D.J. Patrice, Mboussi S. Bertrand, Heu Alain, Kuate T.W. Norbert, Asta D. Baba, Tchoupou T. D. Brice, Djile Bouba, Ambang Zachée


Cashew nuts (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) is one of the plants adapted in North and Far North of Cameroon after cotton. Nevertheless, the crop is susceptible to several pests and diseases like Red rust. The objective of this work was to characterize red rust disease and the micromorphology of the algal causal agent. Leaves with symptoms of each attacked tree (AB05-08 and AB 29 varieties) were randomly extracted for lesion characterization according to its size and number, in the three mains production sites, Maroua, Yagoua (Far North) and Garoua (North). The pathogen structures were characterized under light microscope. Incidence, severity and prevalence of disease were evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons. The most obvious symptom was small spots lesion, more or less circular with orange color on the upper leaf surfaces. The dimensions obtained for sporangia were 41.32-51.65 μm in length and 25.82- 30.95 μm in width. Number of sporangia varied from 0 to 6 depending on the season. Based on symptoms, micromorphology and according to literature, it was found that the disease was caused by the algae Cephaleurosvirescens. Incidence was very high in Maroua, whatever the season 51.67 and 64.17 % respectively. Severity was very low (less than 16%) whatever the site and season. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the implementation of strategies against red rust in Cameroon. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of red rust on cashew in Cameroon.


Anacardium occidentale, red rust, Cephaleuros virescens, alga, incidence, severity

Full Text:



Adeniyi, D. O., D. A. Animasaun, A. A. Abdulrahman, K. S. Olorunmaiye, G. S. Olahan and O. A. Adeji. 2019. Integrated System for Cashew Disease Management and Yield. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology, 13: 40-48

Afouda, L., V. Zinsou, R. Balogoun, A. Onzo and B. Ahohuendo. 2013. Inventaire des agentspathogènes de l’anacardier (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) au Bénin. Bulletin de la RechercheAgronomique du Bénin, 73: 13-19.

Atsumi, A., T. Takushi, T. Sato, A. Ooshiro and M. Yamashiro. 2017. First report of flyspeck of mango caused by Stomiopeltis sp. in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 83: 299-303.

Assenga, B. B., P. A. Masawe, T. M. Tarimo, F. Kapinga and E. R. Mbega. 2020. Status of sucking insect pests in cashew growing locations of South and Central Zones, Tanzania. International Journal of Biosciences, 16: 34-45.

Binoy, T. T., Thomas, V.P., Bhagya, M.V., Nair, S.S., Rajan, Reshma and Saranyamol, S.T. 2016. New Record of Phytoparasitic Alga, Cephaleurosdiffusus Thomson &Wujekin (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) on Artocarpusincisus (Thunb.) L.F., Kerala, India. . International Journal of Modern Botany, 6: 37-40.

Cardoso, J. E., M. A. Bezerra, F. M. P. Viana, T. R. M. d. Sousa, A. Q. Cysne and F. C. Farias. 2009. Ocorrênciaendofítica de Lasiodiplodiatheobromaeemtecidos de cajueiro e suatransmissãoporpropágulos. Summa Phytopathologica, 35: 262-266.

Diaz, M. T., T. Mbaro, A. Metais, J. Meudec and L. Van Couwenberghe. 2003. Inventaire, cartographiqueet plan simple de gestion de la plantation d'anacardiers de Mayo-Dadi, province du Nord, Cameroun. P. 30.

Didier, C. 2001. La culture de l'anacardier. In : Fruitrop. (Ed. Française) 81 : 2-4

Djongmo, V. A. 2016. Diversitéfloristique et stocks de carbone des plantations à Anacardiumoccidentale (Anacardiaceae) dans la région du Nord Cameroun :Cas de Ngong. . Mémoire de Master en Biologique des OrganismesVégétaux, non publié, Université de Ngaoundéré, P. 56.

Duarte, M. L. R., Albuquerque, F.C and Albuquerque, P.S.B. 2005.Doenças da pimenta-do-reino. In: Manual de Fitopatologia: Doenças das plantascultivadas. (4. Ed): 507-516.

Ghini, R., W. Bettiol and E. Hamada. 2011. Diseases in tropical and plantation crops as affected by climate changes: current knowledge and perspectives. Plant Pathology, 60: 122-132.

Han, K.S., M.-J.Park, J.H. Park and H. D. Shin. 2011. First report of algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleurosvirescens on greenhouse-grown Ficusbenghalensis in Korea. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6: 72-73.

Keller, B., C. Feuillet and M. Messmer. 2000. Genetics of Disease Resistance. Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases. Springer Netherlands, 101-160.

Khatoon, A., A. Mohapatra and S. Kunja. 2017. Major diseases of cashew (AnacardiumOccidentale L.) Caused by fungi and their control in Odisha, India. International Journal of Biosciences, 11: 68-74.

Lautié, E., M. Dornier, M. d. S. Filho and M. Reynes. 2001. Les produits de l'anacardier :caractéristiques, voies de valorisation et marchés. Fruits, 56: 235-248.

Majune, D. J., P. A. Masawe and E. R. Mbega. 2018. Status and Management of Cashew Disease in Tanzania. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 3: 1590-1597.

Malagi, G., I. dos Santos, S. M. Mazaro and C. A. Guginski. 2011. Detecção de Mancha-de-Alga (CephaleurosvirescensKunze) emcitros no Estado do Paraná. Current Agricultural Science and Technology, 17: 148-152.

Mingue, S. 2019. Fiche Technique Anacarde : La culture de la noix de cajou. Agriculture au Cameroun. P. 7.

Muthukumar, T., E. Uma and P. Priyadharsini. 2015. Occurrence of foliicolous parasitic alga Cephaleurosvirescens on cultivated ornamental plants in southern India. Botanica, 20: 87-98.

Nakpalo, S., S. Sibirina, K. Tchoa, A. Kouabenan, K. Mongomake and K. Daouda. 2017. Parasitical Fungi in Cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) Orchard of Cote d`Ivoire. Plant Pathology Journal, 16: 82-88.

NoihaNoumi, V., L. Zapfack, V. Awe Djongmo, N. Witanou, B. Nyeck, J. D. Ngossomo, M. R. Hamadou, C. D. Chimi and R. B. TabueMbobda. 2017. Floristic structure and sequestration potential of cashew agro ecosystems in Africa: A case study from Cameroon. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 36: 277-288.

Paracer, S. and V. Ahmadjian. 2000. Symbiosis: an introduction to biological associations. Oxford University Press on Demand, P. 165.

Pereira, F. T., W. S. Santos, G. R. Guimarães, E. A. A. Duarte, T. A. S. Oliveira, F. Rodrigues and D. D. C. Carvalho. 2020. Cephaleurosvirescens in Brazilian Mahogany: Algae Parasitic Disease Threatening an Important Reforestation Tree. Journal of Agricultural Studies, 8: 439.

Pitaloka, M. K., V. Petcharat, S. Arikit and A. Sunpapao. 2015. Cephaleurosvirescens, the cause of an algal leaf spot on Para rubber in Thailand. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10: 1-4.

Ponmurugan, P., D. Saravanan and M. Ramya. 2010. Culture and biochemical analysis of a tea algal pathogen, Cephaleurosparasiticus. Journal of Phycology, 46: 1017-1023.

Ponmurugan, P., D. Saravanan, M. Ramya, T. Srinivasan, U. Baby and D. Ajay. 2009. Studies on Cephaleurosparasiticus Karst, a pathogenic alga causing red rust disease in tea plantations. Journal of Plantation Crops, 37: 70-73.

Ren, H.Y., B.F. Liu, C. Ma, L. Zhao and N.Q. Ren. 2013. A new lipid-rich microalga Scenedesmus sp. strain R-16 isolated using Nile red staining: effects of carbon and nitrogen sources and initial pH on the biomass and lipid production. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 6: 143.

Shomari and Kennedy. 1999. Survival of Oidiumanacardii on cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale) in southern Tanzania. Plant Pathology, 48: 505-513.

Shukla, A., S. K. Sharma, S. Verma and B. Shylla. 2017. A New Record on Algal Leaf Spot of Quince from Himachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 3103-3106.

Silva, S. X. d. B., F. F. Laranjeira, A. C. F. Soares and S. J. Michereff. 2008. Amostragem, caracterização de sintomas e escaladiagramática da manchagraxa dos citros (Mycosphaerellacitri) no RecôncavoBaiano. Ciência Rural, 39: 896-899.

Soro, D., M. Dornier, F. Abreu, E. Assidjo, B. Yao and M. Reynes. 2011. The cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale) industry in Côte d’Ivoire: analysis and prospects for development. Fruits, 66: 237-245.

Sunpapao, A. and M. K. Pitaloka. 2015. A new record of plant parasitic green algae, Cephaleurosdiffusus (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta), on Acacia auriculiformis hosts in Thailand. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 16: 116-120.

Sunpapao, A., M. K. Pitaloka and S. Arikit. 2016. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleurosvirescens 1 Ulvophyceae. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 17: 31-35.

Suto, Y., E. K. Ganesan and J. A. West. 2014. Comparative observations on Cephaleurosparasiticus and C. virescens (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from India. ALGAE, 29: 121-126.

Suto, Y. and S. Ohtani. 2009. Morphology and taxonomy of five Cephaleuros species (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) from Japan, including three new species. Phycologia, 48: 213-236.

Suto, Y. and S. Ohtani. 2013. Seasonal development of five Cephaleuros species (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) on the leaves of woody plants and the behaviors of their gametes and zoospores. Phycological Research, 61: 105-115.

Tandjiekpon, A., Lagbadohossou, A., Hinvi, J. and Afonnon, E. 2003. La culture de l'anacardier au Bénin : Référentiel Technique. INRAB-PADSE, Bénin.86 p.

Thomas, B.T., Thomas, V.P., Bhagya, M.V., Nair, S.S., Rajan, Reshma and Saranyamol, S.T. 2016. New Record of Phytoparasitic Alga, Cephaleurosdiffusus Thomson &Wujekin (Trentepohliaceae, Chlorophyta) on Artocarpusincisus (Thunb.) L.F., Kerala, India. International Journal of Modern Botany 6: 37-40

Uaciquete, A. 2013.Characterization, epidemiology and control strategies for the anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum spp.) on cashew (Anarcardiumoccidentale L.) in Mozambique.University of Pretoria.PP.85.

Vasconcelos, C. V., F. T. Pereira, E. A. A. Duarte, T. A. S. de Oliveira, N. Peixoto and D. D. C. Carvalho. 2018. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Cephaleurosvirescens Occurring in Mango Trees. The Plant Pathology Journal, 34: 157-162.

Vasconcelos, C. V., F. T. Pereira, C. d. S. Galvão and D. D. C. Carvalho. 2016. Occurrence of algal leaf spot (CephaleurosvirescensKunze) on avocado in Goiás State, Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica, 42: 108-108.

Viana, F. M. P., M. d. S. Ferreira, R. Mariano, H. d. O. Saraiva, J. E. Cardoso and L. C. da Trindade. 2006. Mancha-de-xanthomonas: nova doença do cajueiro. EmbrapaAgroindústria Tropical.Boletim de pesquisa e desenvolvimento, P. 20.

Wonni, I., D. Sereme, I. Ouedraogo, A. Kassankagno, I. Dao, L. Ouedraogo and S. Nacro. 2017. Diseases of cashew nut plants (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) in Burkina Faso. Advances in Plants Agriculture Research, 6(3): 78-83.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Jules Patrice NGOH DOOH

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.