Amna Shoaib, Nafisa ,, Ghanwa Riaz, Qudsia Fatima, Uswa Fatima, Nimra Iqbal


Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found a fast and efficient tool to identify compositional alterations in the cell wall of Pisum sativum L. (green pea) growing in copper [Cu(II)]-spiked and Sclerotium rolfsii (SR) inoculated soil. In the current study, the separate and combined effect of S. rolfsii and Cu(II) was assessed on cell wall biochemistry and Cu accumulation in the pea plants. Data regarding metal content, bioaccumulation factors, and translocation factors revealed that 90-day-old green pea plants could handle metal stress by restricting Cu(II) translocation from root to shoot. Soil FTIR showed shifting in kaolinite and quartz peaks after binding with Cu(II) and SR. Cu(II) and SR induced major changes in the protein and carbohydrate regions of the plants.


Copper, Bioaccumulation factors, Metal accumulation, Sclerotia.

Full Text:



Akhtar, S. and A. Shoaib, A. 2020. The counter defence system of antioxidants in Coelomycetous emerging human and plant pathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina against copper toxicity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27: 597-606.

Akhtar, S., A. Shoaib, N. Akhtar and R. Mehmood. 2016. Separate and combined effects of Macrophomina phaseolina and copper on growth, physiology and antioxidative enzymes in Vigna mungo L. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 26: 1339-1345.

Alloway, B. J. 2013. Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. In: Heavy Metals in Soils Environmental Pollution, ed. B. J. Alloway (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands).

Bağcıoğlu, M., A. Kohler, S. Seifert, J. Kneipp and B. Zimmermann. 2017. Monitoring of plant–environment interactions by high‐throughput FTIR spectroscopy of pollen. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 870-80.

Bhagia, S., X. Meng, B.R. Evans, J.R. Dunlap, G. Bali, J. Chen, K.S. Reeves, H.C. Ho, B.H. Davison, Y. Pu and A.J. Ragauskas. 2018. Ultrastructure and enzymatic hydrolysis of deuterated Switchgrass. Scitific Report, 8: 13226.

Gadsden, J. A. 1975. Infrared spectra of minerals and related inorganic compounds. London: Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. pp. 277.

Gnanasambandam, R. and A. Protor. 2000. Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 68: 327-332.

Khurshid, S., A. Shoaib, A. Javaid, F. Akhtar, M. Shafiq and U. Qaisar. 2017. Management of Fusarium wilt of tomato by soil amendment with Cenchrus pennisetiformis under chromium stress. Physiology and Molecular Plant Pathology, 97: 58-68.

Lahlali, R., Y.F. Jiang, S. Kumar, C. Karunakaran, X. Liu, F. Borondics, E. Hallin and R. Bueckert. 2014. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals involvement of lipids and proteins of intact pea pollen grains to heat stress tolerance. Frontier in Plant Sciences, 5: 747-753.

Largo-Gosens, A., M. Hernández-Altamirano, L. García-Calvo, A. Alonso-Simón, Álvarez and J.L. Acebes. 2014. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy applications for monitoring the structural plasticity of plant cell walls. Frintier in Plant Sciences, 5: 303-309.

Mazurek, S., A. Mucciolo, B.M. Humbel and C. Nawrath. 2013. Transmission Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy allows simultaneous assessment of cutin and cell-wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis petals. Plant Journal, 74: 880-891.

Mishra, S., S. Srivastava, R.D. Tripathi, R. Govindarajan, S. V. Kuriakose and M.N.V. Prasad. 2006. Phytochelatin synthesis and response of antioxidants during cadmium stress in Bacopa monnieri L. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 44: 25-37.

Mitic-Stojanovic, D.L., A. Zarubica, M. Purenovic, D. Bojic, T. Andjelkovic and A. L. Bojic. 2011. Biosorptive removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions from water by Lagenaria vulgaris shell. Water SA, 37: 303-312.

Nafisa, A. Shoaib and A. Javaid. 2013. Growth of Pisum sativum under single or combined action of Sclerotium rolfsii and copper [Cu(II)]. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 1363-1366.

Nafisa, A. Shoaib, M. Shafiq and A. Javaid. 2016. Effect of Sclerotium rolfsii on uptake of heavy metal copper in pea (Pisum sativum). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 18: 1363-1366.

Nayak, P.S. and B.K. Singh. 2007. Instrumental characterization of clay by XRF, XRD and FTIR. The Bulletin of Materials Science, 33: 235-238.

Nikalje, G.C., J. Kumar, T. D. Nikam and P. Suprasanna, 2019. FT-IR profiling reveals differential response of roots and leaves to salt stress in a halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.). Biotechnology Reports, 23: Article ID e00352.

Printz, B., S. Lutts, J. F. Hausman and K. Sergeant. 2016. Copper trafficking in plants and its implication on cell wall dynamics. Frontier in Plant Sciences, 6: 601-609.

Rafi, S., A. Shoaib, Z. A. Awan, N. B. Rizvi and M. Shafiq. 2017. Chromium tolerance, oxidative stress response, morphological characteristics, and FTIR studies of phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. Folia Microbiologica, 62: 207-219.

Sana, N., A. Javaid and A. Shoaib, A. 2017. Effect of NPK fertilizers and commercial biofertilizers on southern blight disease and plant growth in chili. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 46: 659-666.

Sana, N., A. Shoaib, A. Javaid and A. K. Khan. 2016. Phytochemical management of collar rot of chili with leaf biomass of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 28: 19-24.

Shoaib, A., M. Akhtar, A. Javaid, A. Haider, Z. Nisar and S. Javed. 2021. Antifungal potential of zinc against leaf spot disease in chili pepper caused by Alternaria alternata. Physiology and Molecular Biology of the Plants, 27: 1361-1376.

Shoaib, A., S. Abbas, Z. Nisar, A. Javaid and S. Javed 2022. Zinc highly potentiates the plant defense responses against Macrophomina phaseolina in mungbean. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 44: 1-17.

Shoaib, A., N. Akhtar, Nafisa and A. Aftab, 2013c. Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy to monitor modifications in canola biochemistry caused by Alternaria destruens. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 25: 105-109.

Shoaib, A., N. Aslam and N. Aslam. 2013b. Trichoderma harzianum: Adsorption, desorption, isotherm and FTIR studies. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23: 1460-1465.

Shoaib, A., N. Aslam, M. M. Athar, S. Akhtar, Nafisa and S. Khurshid. 2013a. Removal of Cr(VI) ions through bread mold fungus. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2: 171-176.

Thumanu, K., M. Sompong, P. Phansak, K. Nontapot and N. Buensanteai. 2015. Use of infrared microspectroscopy to determine leaf biochemical composition of cassava in response to Bacillus subtilis CaSUT007. Journal of Plant Interactions,10: 270-9.

Tinti, A., V. Tugnoli, S. Bonora and O. Francioso. 2015. Recent applications of vibrational mid-Infrared (IR) spectroscopy for studying soil components: a review. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 16: 1-22.

Wilson, R.H., A.C. Smith, M. Kačuráková, P.K. Saunders, N. Wellner and K.W. Waldron. 2000. The mechanical properties and molecular dynamics of plant cell wall polysaccharides studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Plant Physiology, 124: 397-405.

Wolf, R. G. 1963. Structural aspects of kaolinite using infrared absorption. American Mineralogist, 48: 390.

Yashim, Z.I., I. O. Kehinde and M. Hannatu. 2014. A study of the uptake of heavy metals by plants near metal-scrap dumpsite in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 4: 1-5.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Amna Shoaib, Nafisa Farooq, Shahbaz Ahmad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.