EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED BOTANICALS AGAINST (ALTERNARIA SOLANI) CAUSING EARLY BLIGHT DISEASE ON TOMATO IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR

Asma Bashir, Muhammad T. Khan, Raees Ahmed, Basharat Mehmood, Muhammad T. Younas, Hafiz M. U. Rehman, Shabir Hussain

Abstract


Botanical extracts had proved efficient, cost effective and environment friendly means of plant disease management. Alternaria solani is a fungal pathogen responsible for early blight resulting in huge economic losses. There is dire need for effective cheap alternatives of conventional health hazardous and expensive chemical control. In this study in-vitro evaluation of four plant extracts (Melia azedarach, Cannabis sativa, Achillia millefolium and Datura stramonium) were used against early blight disease on tomato at 3 different concentrations (10, 15 and 20%) in complete randomized design. Pathogen was isolated from different tomato growing areas of Rawalakot, purified and multiplied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) followed by hyphal tip method. Food poisoned technique was used for fungal growth inhibition. M. azedarach was found most efficient with 73.18% inhibition at 20%, followed by C. sativa, D. stramonium and A. millefolium (55.79%, 37.12% and 31.9% respectively) as compared to control (88.2%). Tomato variety (Roma) was used as experimental material with Completely Randomized Design in the greenhouse experiment. M. azedarach showed highest reduction of early blight disease severity 67.93% at 20% concentration followed by C. sativa, D. stramonium and A. millefolium (53.63%, 43.28%, and 31.78%) respectively while it was 87.3% in control. Study showed that plant extracts could be used as alternatives of highly expensive, health hazardous chemicals to control early blight disease on tomato.


Keywords


Alternaria solani; Fungicides; Plant extracts, Growth inhibition, Disease control.

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References


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Bhandari, G. 2014. An overview of agrochemicals and their effects on environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2: 66-73.

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Bhandari, G. 2014. An overview of agrochemicals and their effects on environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2: 66-73.

D-Steel, R. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1986. Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill, 400-428pp.

Davey, M. W., M. v. Montagu, D. Inze, M. Sanmartin, A. Kanellis, N. Smirnoff, I. J. J. Benzie, J. J. Strain, D. Favell and J. Fletcher. 2000. Plant L‐ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80: 825-860.

Engindeniz, S. and G. O. Cosar. 2013. An economic comparison of pesticide applications for processing and table tomatoes: A case study for Turkey. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 53: 230-237.

Ganie, S., M. Ghani, Q. Nissar, N. Jabeen, Q. Anjum and F. Ahanger. 2013. Status and symptomatology of early blight (Alternaria solani) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kashmir valley. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8: 5104-5115.

Goufo, P., C. T. Mofor, D. Fontem and D. Ngnokam. 2008. High efficacy of extracts of Cameroon plants against tomato late blight disease. Agronomy for sustainable development, 28: 567-573.

Gurjar, M. S., S. Ali, M. Akhtar and K. S. Singh. 2012. Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management 3: 425-433.

Hahn, M. 2014. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study. Journal of chemical biology, 7: 133-141.

Hassanein, N., M. Abou Zeid, K. Youssef and D. Mahmoud. 2008. Efficacy of leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) and chinaberry (Melia azedrach) against early blight and wilt diseases of tomato. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci, 2: 763-772.

Kagale, S., T. Marimuthu, B. Thayumanavan, R. Nandakumar and R. Samiyappan. 2004. Antimicrobial activity and induction of systemic resistance in rice by leaf extract of Datura metel against Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 65: 91-100.

Kumar, S. and K. Srivastava. 2013. Screening of tomato genotypes against early blight (Alternaria solani) under field condition. The Bioscan, 8: 189-193.

Kumar, V., G. Singh and A. Tyagi. 2017. Evaluation of different fungicides against Alternaria leaf blight of tomato (Alternaria solani). International Journal of Current, Microbiological and Applied Sciences, 6: 2343-2350.

Mayee, C. D. and V. V. Datar, 1986. Phytopathometry, Marathwad Agricultural University, Parabhani. p. 95.

Mohana, D. and K. Raveesha. 2007. Anti-fungal evaluation of some plant extracts against some plant pathogenic field and storage fungi. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 4: 119-137.

Nasir, F. and M. S. Khan. 2012. Validation of Some of the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Xanthium strumarium and Duchesnea indica. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44: 1199-1201.

Paramathma, M., K. Parthiban, V. Muralidharan, R. J. Sudhagar, M. Sujatha, A. J. Prabakaran, P. Durairasu, P. Viswanathan, K. Raj and M. Sivaprakash. 2014. CJ-3 (IC0598611; INGR 14006), a Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Germplasm with High yield, Early Flowering (125 Days) and High Oil Content (38.01%). Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 27: 185-187.

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Pretorius, J., P. Zietsman and D. Eksteen. 2002. Fungitoxic properties of selected South African plant species against plant pathogens of economic importance in agriculture. Annals of Applied Biology, 141: 117-124.

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Tariq-Khan, M., A.-D. A. Khan, M. Saeed, S. Z. Gardazi, B. Mehmood, M. Ilyas and R. Ahmed. 2020. Distribution and virulence of root-knot nematodes on summer vegetables in sudhnuti district of azad jammu and kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 32.

Tariq‐Khan, M., T. Mukhtar, A. Munir, J. Hallmann and H. Heuer. 2020. Comprehensive report on the prevalence of root‐knot nematodes in the Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Phytopathology, 168: 322-336.

Taskeen-Un-Nisa, W. A., M. Y. Bhat, S. Pala and R. Mir. 2011. In vitro inhibitory effect of fungicides and botanicals on mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum. Journal of Biopesticides, 4: 53-56.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33866/phytopathol.030.02.0587

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