Ramadan A. Bakr


Datura is poisonous flowering plants (Family: Solanaceae) and annual or biennial herbs. It contains different structurally diverse plant secondary metabolites like tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine and atropine. Root-knot nematode (RKN) considered from the most ten predominant plant pathogenic nematodes widely attacking economic and non-economic crops all over the world. The present review focus on the role of Datura spp. in nematode control, antiemetic properties, and their mechanism of control. Obtainable knowledge on the efficacy of this botanical against the most tested plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) affecting crops from many centuries. The nematicidal activity in mortality, egg hatching, nematodes control and enhancement of plant growth as well mode of action is discussed. Data from our ongoing research regardless of Datura were included. Obtainable results revealed that Datura showed a great role in RKN management via affecting nematode egg hatching, larvae mortality, root galling or plant growth promotion by different mode of actions.


Botanicals, Datura, plant-parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.

Full Text:



Abad, P., B. Favery, M. Rosso and P. Castagnone‐Sereno. 2003. Root‐knot nematode parasitism and host response: molecular basis of a sophisticated interaction. Molecular Plant Pathology, 4: 217-224.

Abawi, G. S. and T. L. Widmer. 2000. Impact of soil health management practices on soil borne pathogens, nematodes and root diseases of vegetable crops. Applied Soil Ecology, 15: 37-47.

Abid, M. 1996. Studies on the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) with botanical toxicants. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi, pp. 345.

Abid, M., M.I. Choudhary, M.A. Maqbool, and A. Ur-Rahman. 1997. Preliminary screening of some plants for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne javanica. Nematologia Mediterranea, 25: 155–157.

Abid, M., S. Ehteshamul-Haque, V. Sultana, J. Ara, A. Ghaffar and M.A. Maqbool. 1995. Comparative efficacy of neem cake and other organic amendments in the control of root-knot nematode in Mung-bean. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 13: 103-107.

Abubakar, U., T. Adamu, and S.B. Manga. 2004. Control of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood (root-knot nematode) of Lycopersicon esculentus (tomato) using cow dung and urine. African Journal of Biotechnology, 3: 379-381.

Abu-Darwish, S. M., and A. M. Ateyyat. 2008. The pharmacological and pesticidal actions of naturally occurring 1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinones derivatives. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4: 495-505.

Adegbite, A. A. 2003. Comparative effects of carbofuran and water extract of Chromolaena odorata on growth, yield, and food components of root-knot nematode-infested soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Ph. D thesis. University of Ibadan. Nigeria.

Ahmad, M. S., T. Mukhtar and R. Ahmad. 2004. Some studies on the control of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by leaf. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 3: 544-548.

Ahmad, R., M. Tariq, N. Javed and M. Inam-ul-Haq. 1991. Effect of extract of various plants on egg hatching and larval mortality of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 3: 38-42.

Ahmad, S., B. Safia, I. Naz, I. Khan, A. R. Saljoqi, G. Jan, J. Uddin, M. Abdal and S. Wali Khan .2020. Management of Tomato Parasitic Nematode through Organic Nematicides in Peshawar. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 22: 1099-1108.

Akhtar, M. and A. Malik. 2000. Roles of organic soil amendments and soil organisms in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review. Bioresource Technology, 74: 35-47.

Akpheokhai, I.L., A. O. Claudius-Cole and B. Fawole. 2012. Evaluation of some plant extracts for the management of Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean (Glycine max). World Journal of Agriculture Science, 8: 429-435.

Al Saba, R.F., S.N. Ammi and A. J. B. Al-Zarry. 2001. Effect of Datura stramonium extracts on root-knot nematodes M. javanica in tomato plant. Dirasat Agricultural Sciences, 28: 219-226.

Alam, M. M.1986. Possible use of weeds as soil amendment for the management of root-knot and stunt nematodes attacking eggplant. Agricultural wastes, 16: 97-102.

Amin, A.W. and M.M. A. Youssef. 1999. Comparative study on the efficiency of dry and green manuring of certain plant leaves against Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting sunflower. Journal of Pest Science, 72: 166-168.

Amin, A.W., and M. M. A. Youssef. 1997. Efficiency of certain plant leaves for controlling Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting Sunflower in Egypt. International Journal of Nematology, 7: 198-200.

Anaya, A. L. 2006. Allelopathic organisms and molecules: Promising bioregulators for the control of plant diseases, weeds, and other pests. Pp 31-78. In Inderjit and Mukerjit, K. G. (eds.) Allelochemicals: biological control of plant pathogens and diseases (Springer), 31-78.

Andrés, M. F., A. González-Coloma, J. Sanz, J. Burillo and P. Sainz. 2012. Nematicidal activity of essential oils: a review. Phytochemistry Reviews, 11: 371-390.

Archana, U. S. and D. Prasad. 2014. Management of plant-parasitic nematodes by the use of botanicals. Journal of Plant Physiology and Pathology, 2: 1-10.

Awan, M.A., N. Javed., R. Ahamd and M. Inamul Haq. 1992. Effects of some leaf extracts of four plant species on the larval mortality of citrus nematode (T. semipenetrans Cobb.) and citrus plant growth. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 441-445.

Ayazpour, K., H. Hasanzadeh, and M.S. Arabzadegan. 2010. Evaluation of the control of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by leaf extracts of many plants and their effects on plant growth. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5: 1876-1880.

Babaali, D., J. Roeb, M. Hammache, and J. Hallmann. 2017. Nematicidal potential of aqueous and ethanol extracts gained from Datura stramonium, D. innoxia and D. tatula on Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 124: 339-348.

Babaali, D., J. Roeb, S. Zaidat, B. Reguige, M. Hammache and J. Hallmann. 2021. Nematicidal activity of the tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Nematology, 1: 1-9.

Bakr, R. A. and H. A. Ketta. 2018. Nematicidal potential of some botanical products against Meloidogyne incognita infecting Eggplant. Indian Journal of Nematology, 48: 203-211.

Bakr, R. A., M.E. Mahdy and E.M. Mousa. 2011. A survey of root-knot and citrus nematodes in some new reclaimed lands in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 29: 165-170.

Bakr, R. A., M. E. Mahdy and E. M. Mousa. 2020. Survey of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. associated with different economic crops and weeds in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Crop Protection, 15: 1-14.

Bakr, R.A. 2018. Bionematicidal potential of some incorporating plants on Meloidogyne javanica control on Tomato. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7: 1457-1464.

Bakr, R.A. 2014. Mechanism of some bio-control agents and plant extracts to control root-knot nematode disease. PhD. thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University, Egypt.

Banso, A, and Samuel A. 2006. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon mauritianum, Bacopa monnifera and Datura stramonium. Biokemistri, 18: 39-44.

Bernards, M. A., L.F. Yousef, and R. W. Nicol. 2006. The allelopathic potential of ginsenosides. In Inderjit and Mukerjit, K. G. (eds.) Allelochemicals: biological control of plant pathogens and diseases (Springer), 157-175.

Brand, D., C.R. Soccol, A. Sabu and S. Roussos. 2010. Production of fungal biological control agents through solid state fermentation: a case study on Paecilomyces lilacinus against root-knot nematodes. Micologia Aplicada International, 22: 31-48.

Bye, Robert, and Victoria Sosa. 2013. Molecular phylogeny of the jimsonweed genus Datura (Solanaceae). Systematic Botany, 38: 818-829.

Carlsen, S. C. K. and I. S. Fomsgaard. 2008. Biologically active secondary metabolites in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) a review focusing on contents in the plant, plant–pest interactions and transformation. Chemo Ecology, 18: 129-170.

Chattopadhyay, P.R. 1991. Nematicidal properties of some plant materials on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar local) infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Geobios, 18: 232-326.

Chaudhary, K.K., A. Haile, Z. G. Ayresea, G. Semereab and T. Weldegergish. 2013. Nematicidal activity of Eritrean weed plants against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Nematropica, 43: 207-215.

Chitwood, D. J. 2002. Phytochemical based strategies for nematode control. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40, 221-249.

Choi, I, J. Kim, S Shin and I. Park. 2007. Nematicidal activity of monoterpenoids against the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). Russian Journal of Nematology, 15: 35-40.

D'Addabbo, T.1995. The nematicidal effect of organic amendments: a review of the literature, 1982-1994. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23: 299-306.

Dayan, F. E., C. L. Cantrell and S. O. Duke. 2009. Natural products in crop protection. Bioorganic and medicinal chemistry, 17: 4022-4034.

Decraemer, W. and D. J. Hunt. 2013. Structure and classification. in: Plant Nematology, 2nd Edn, eds R. N. Perry, and D. J. Hunt (Wallingford: CAB International).

Duke, J. 1985. CRC handbook of medicinal herbs. (Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc.).

Duke, S. O. 1990.Natural pesticides from plants." In Advances in new crops. Proceedings of the first national symposium 'New crops: research, development, economics., 23-26 October 1988., 511-517. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA: Timber Press.

Ehteshamul-Haque, S., M. Abid, V. Sultana, J. Ara, and A. Ghaffar. 1996. Use of organic amendments on the efficacy of biocontrol agents in the control of root rot and root knot disease complex of okra. Nematologia Mediterranea, 24: 13-16.

El Bazaoui, A., M.A., Bellimam and A. Soulaymani. 2011. Nine new tropane alkaloids from Datura stramonium L. identified by GC/MS. Fitoterapia, 82: 193-97.

Elbadri, G.A., D. W. Lee, J. C. Park, H.B. Yu and H. Y. Choo. 2008. Evaluation of various plant extracts for their nematicidal efficacies against juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 11: 99-102.

Eskandarzadeh, N., S. Moslehi and N. Vaez. 2020. Evaluation of the Effects of Thorne-apple and Henbane on Egg Hatching and Mortality of Juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. Journal of Applied Research in Plant Protection, 9: 45-60.

El-Zawahry, A., M, A. M. A. Mahran, and M. A. Allam. 2014. Management of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by certain plant species. Journal of Phytopathology and Pest Management, 1: 46-52.

Fatoki, O. K. and B. Fawole. 2000. Identification of nematicidal ingredients from neem leaves, siam weed leaves and roots. African Journal of Plant Protection, 10: 33-38.

Firoza, K. and M. A. Maqbool. 1996a. Nematicidal properties of leaves of some plant species against Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1963 on tomato. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 14: 107-110.

Firoza, K. and M.A. Maqbool. 1996b. Effect of plant extracts in the control of Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 14: 61-66.

Ghayal, N., A. Padhye and K. Dhumal. 2010. Larvicidal activity of invasive weeds Cassia uniflora and Synedrella nodiflora. International Journal of Pharma and BioSciences, 1: 1-10.

Goswami, B. K. and K. Vijayalakshmi. 1987. Studies on the effect of some plant and non-edible oil seed cake extracts on larval hatching of Meloidogyne incognita. Journal Research of Assam Agricultural University, 8: 62-64.

Hadj-Sadok, D. N., S. Hadroug and F. Taoussi. 2014. Activity nematicide in vitro of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants Artemisia campestris, Ziziphus lotus, Datura stramonium et Urginea maritima on larvae of Meloidogyne." In AFPP– Dixième Conférence Internationale Sur Les Ravageurs En Agriculture. Montpellier. 22 et 23 Octobre 2014.

Hasan, H. H., S. Simon and A. A. Lal. 2014. Effect of selected botanical extracts against Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 4: 101-108.

Hunt, D. J., M. Luc and R. H. Manzanilla-López. 2018. Identification, morphology and biology of plant parasitic nematodes.' in D. Coyne R. Sikora, J. Hallmann, P. Timper (ed.), Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical Tropical Agriculture (CABI Publisher: Wallingford, England.).

Hussain, M. A., S. Ahmad, W. Anum, M. Khanum, H. Raza, and M. N. Aslam. 2018. Microenvironmental alteration by the use of some plants for the effective control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on brinjal. Plant Protection, 2:93-99.

Hussain, M.A., T. Mukhtar and M. Z. Kayani. 2011. Efficacy evaluation of Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera, Datura stramonium and Tagetes erecta against root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43: 197-204.

Ibrahim, I.K.A., A.A. Mokbel and Z.A. Handoo. 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica, 40: 239-262.

Ibrahim, M. A.R. and H. A.M. Srour. 2013. Saponins suppress nematode cholesterol biosynthesis and inhibit root knot nematode development in tomato seedlings. Natural Products Chemistry and Research, 2: 1-6.

Imran, M. and S.K. Saxena. 1993. Effect of plant materials on the population of tomato root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23: 180-182.

Insunza, V., E. Aballay and J. Macaya. 2001. In vitro nematicidal activity of aqueous plant extracts on Chilean populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato. Nematropica, 47-54.

Ionela, D.C. and I.B. Ion. 2007. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Section Genetics Molecular Biology, 8: 151.

Jaffee, B.A., H. Ferris and K. M. Scow. 1998. Nematode-trapping fungi in organic and conventional cropping systems. Phytopathology, 88: 344-50.

Jones, J.T., A. Haegeman, E.G. Danchin, H.S. Gaur, J. Helder, M.G. Jones, T. Kikuchi, R. Manzanilla‐López, J.E. Palomares‐Rius, W.M. Wesemael and R.N., Perry. 2013. Top 10 plant‐parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology. Molecular Plant Pathology, 14: 946-961.

Kale, A. A., R. C. Torane, N. R. Deshpande and J. P. Salvekar. 2011. Antioxidant potential from stem bark of Juglans regia L. Annals of Biological Research, 2: 176-180.

Kamau, N.W., J.M. M., D.O. Otaye and S. Haukeland. 2020. Effect of aqueous extracts of Datura stramonium W. seeds, leaves and roots on mortality of second stage juveniles of Globodera rostochiensis in Kenya. African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2, 99-106.

Kayani, M. Z., G. Sarwar and S. Muhammad. 2001. Control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on tomato plants by using root extracts of plants. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics Subtropics, 102: 143-146.

Keshari, A.K. and R. Gupta. 2015. Management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato using extracts of indigenous plants of Nepal. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 23: 131-134.

Khan, H.U., R. Ahmad, M.A. Khan and A.S. Akhtar. 2000. Integrated management of root-knot disease of tomato. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 3: 2109-2111.

Kim, D. I., J. D. Park, S. G. Kim, H. Kuk, M. S. Jang and S. S. Kim. 2005. Screening of some crude plant extracts for their acaricidal and insecticidal efficacies. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 8: 93-100.

Kingland, GC. 2001. Diseases and insects of fruit and vegetable crops. In 30-35. Clemson Press, Victoria, Seychelles.

Knoblock, K., K. Weisand R. Wergent. 1989. Mechanism of antimicrobial activity of essential oils." In Proceedings of 37th Annual Congress Medicine Plant Research (ACMPR’89). Braunisweig. 5 -9 PP.

Kokalis-Burelle, N. and R. Rodríguez-Kábana. 2006. Allelochemicals as biopesticides for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Pp 15-30. In Inderjit and Mukerjit, K.G (eds.).' in, Allelochemicals: biological control of plant pathogens and diseases (Springer). The Netherlands.

Kumari, N. V. and M. Lakshmi Devi. 2013. Effect of some indigenous plant extracts on the inhibition of egg hatching of nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood infesting mulberry. HortFlora Research Spectrum, 2: 35-39.

Kumbașli, M., É.Bauce, S. Rochefort and M. Crépin. 2011. Effects of tree age and stand thinning related variations in balsam fir secondary compounds on spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana development, growth and food utilization. Agricultural Forest Entomology, 13: 131-141.

Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA handbook of poisonous and injurious plants (American Medical Association). PP. 432.

Makoi, J. H. and P. A. Ndakidemi. 2007. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic compounds in rhizosphere of the symbiotic legumes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6: 1358-1368.

Mani, A. and K.C. Chitra. 1989. Toxicity of certain plant extracts to Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologia Mediterranea, 17: 43-44.

Manju, P. and S. Meena.2015. Antinemic properties of the botanicals. International Journal of Science and Nature, 6: 125-134.

Martin, F. N.2003. Development of alternative strategies for management of soil-borne pathogens currently controlled with methyl bromide. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 41: 325-350.

Mateeva, A. and M. Ivanova. 2000. Alternative methods for control of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Acta Horticulture, 532: 109-114.

Mcsorley, R. 2011. Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida. Journal of Nematology, 43: 69-81.

Moazezikho, A., H. Charehgani, M. Abdollahi and R. Rezaei. 2020. Evidence of inhibitory effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and aqueous extracts on tomato plants infected with Meloidogyne javanica (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 30: 1-8.

Moosavi, M.R. 2012. Nematicidal effect of some herbal powders and their aqueous extracts against Meloidogyne javanica. Nematropica, 42: 48-56.

Morra, M.J. and J.A. Kirkegaard. 2002. Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 1683-1690.

Mostafa, F., A. Refaei, A. Khalil and M. El-Deriny. 2016. Potential use of botanicals rich in alkaloids for controlling Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting cucurbits. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 15: 29-43.

Mousa, E.M., M.E. Mahdy and R.A. Bakr. 2014. Bionematicide effect of some plant extracts on Meloidogyne incognita control on tomato. 6th International Congress of Nematology, 4-9 May 2014, Cape Town, South Africa.

Nandakumar, A., M. M. Vaganan, P. Sundararaju and R. Udayakumar 2017. Phytochemical analysis and nematicidal activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of Datura metel, Datura innoxia and Brugmansia suaveolens against Meloidogyne incognita. Asian Journal of Biology: 1-11.

Nandal, S.N. and D. S. Bhatti. 1986a. The effect of certain edaphic factors on the nematicidal activity of plant extracts. Nematologia Mediterranea, 14: 295-298.

Nandal, S.N. and D. S. Bhatti. 1986b. Influence of four plant extracts on the hatching of Meloidogyne javanica and invasion of host roots. Nematologia Mediterranea, 14: 291-294.

Nandal, S.N. and D. S. Bhatti. 1990. Efficacy, persistence and field application potential of some weeds/shrubs for controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Brinjal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 18: 113-115.

Nelaballe, V. K. and L. D. Mukkara. 2013a. A Preliminary study on the nematicidal effect of some local flora on Meloidogyne incognita chitwood infesting Mulberry. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 1: 475-77.

Nour El-Deen, A. H. 2011. Integrated control of Meloidogyne incognita infesting tomato plants using callus powders derived from certain plants either alone or in combination with oxamyl under out-door conditions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, 1: 225-30.

Ntalli, N., Z. Adamski, M. Doula and N. Monokrousos. 2020. Nematicidal Amendments and Soil Remediation. Plants, 9: 429.

Nyczepir, A.P. and S.H. Thomas. 2009. Current and future management strategies in intensive crop production systems.' in R.N. Perry, Moens, M., Starr, J. (ed.), Root-Knot Nematodes (CAB International: Wallingford, UK.

Oduor-Owino, P. 1993. Effects of aldicarb, Datura stramonium, Datura metel and Tagetes minuta on the pathogenicity of root-knot nematodes in Kenya. Crop Protection, 12: 315-317.

Oduor-Owino, P. 2003a. Control of root-knot nematodes in Kenya with aldicarb and selected antagonistic plants. Nematologia Mediterranea, 31: 125–127.

Oduor-Owino, P. 2003b. Integrated management of root-knot nematodes using agrochemicals, organic matter and the antagonistic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus in natural field soil. Nematologia Mediterranea, 31: 121-123.

Oduor‐Owino, P., S.W. Waudo and W.L. Makhatsa. 1993. Effect of organic amendments on fungal parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita eggs and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cv. Moneymaker. International Journal of Pest Management, 39: 459-461.

Oka, Y. 2010. Mechanisms of nematode suppression by organic soil amendments: a review. Applied Soil Ecology, 44: 101-115.

Oka, Y., B. Ben-Daniel and Y. Cohen. 2006. Control of Meloidogyne javanica by formulations of Inula viscosa leaf extracts. Journal of Nematology, 38: 46-51.

Olaniyi, M.O.2015. The use of botanicals in the management of plant parasitic nematodes. The International Journal of Science and Technoledge, 3: 300-309.

Oplos, C., K. Eloh, U. Spiroudi, C. Pierluigi and N. Ntalli. 2018. Nematicidal weeds, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium. Journal of Nematology, 50: 317-328.

Osman, A.A., A.M. Kheir, and E. O. Abdel-ra'ouf. 2016. Nematode biomanagement as an alternative strategy to chemical approach. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 26: 75-81.

Owino, P.O. and S.W. Waudo.1992. Medicinal plants of Kenya: Effects of Meloidogyne incognita and the growth of okra. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 2: 64-66.

Parihar, K., B. Rehman and M. A. Siddiqui. 2012. Impact of organic additives for sustainable management of root-knot nematode in bottle gourd. Biosciences International, 1: 102-105.

Parul, A., A.K. Chaubey and S.D. Mishra. 2011a. In vitro evaluation of nematicidal efficacy of the extracts of some botanicals and bioagents on egg hatching and larval mortality of juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita Race-1. Current Nematology, 22: 63-67.

Parul, A., A.K. Chaubey and S.D. Mishra. 2011b. Evaluation of neem and other plant products as seed coating against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Race-1) infesting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Current Nematology, 22: 11-14.

Pathan, M.A., M.M. Jiskani, A.M. Lodhi, K.H. Wagan and M. R. Saheto. 2002. Effect of extract of different plant parts and carbofuran on management of Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato. National Symposium on Nematology. January 7-9, 2002. National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, P.117-124.

Pinkerton, C.B. and D.R. Kitner. 2006. Effects of biologically derived products on mobility and reproduction of the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans on strawberry. Nematropica, 36: 181-196.

Prasad, D., R. Dala and I. Ahmad. 2002. Management of plant parasitic nematodes by the use of botanicals. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 10: 360-364.

Qamar, F., Z. Kapadia, S.A. Khan and Y. Badar. 1995. Datura metel L., a plant with nematicidal potential. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 38: 319-321.

Radwan, M.A., E.K. El-Maadawy and M.M. Abu-Elamayem. 2007. Comparison of the nematicidal potentials of dried leaves of five plant species against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato. Nematologia Mediterranea, 35: 81-84.

Rao, C. V., A. Mani, and P. K. Rao. 1986. Effect of plant products on egg hatch and larval mortality of Meloidogyne incognita. Indian academic science: Animal Sciences, 95: 397-401.

Saeed, M. R. M., G.A. M. Awadh, M. A. Al-Thobhani and A. Taj Al- Deen. 2015. In vitro nematicidal activity of ten plant extracts against juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 14: 78-90.

Saeed, M. and J. Shawkat. 2014. Nematicidal Effect of Some Botanical Powders and Poultry Manure Against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood infecting Tomato Plants. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 13: 160-171.

Safiuddin, S.S. 2010. Use of botanicals for the management of Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani disease complex in okra. Current Nematology, 21: 1-4.

Sellami, S. and A. Mouffarrah. 1994. Effect of some aqueous plant extracts on juvenile hatching and larval mortality against Meloidogyne incognita. Medelingen Faculteit-Land Bouwkundige-EN TOEYE Paste lologishewntensch APPEN Univesitei Gent, 59: 813-816.

Shah, N.H., A. R. Dar, I.A. Qureshi, A. Akhter, M. R. Wani and L. Andleeb. 2018. Control of root-knot disease of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) by the application of leaf extracts of certain medicinal plants. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52: 444-447.

Shahwar, D., M. Abid, A.U. Rehman, M.A. Maqbool and M.I. Chaudhary. 1993.Nematicidal constituents of Datura fastuosa. Fifth National Chemistry Conference, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, p. 284-285.

Shahwar, D., M. Abid, A.U. Rehman, M.A. Maqbool, and M.I. Choudhary. 1995.Nematicidal compounds from Datura fastuosa. 19th IUPAC Symposium on the chemistry of Natural Products, Ata-Ur-Rehman, 171-79. HEJ Res. Inst. of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270- Pakistan, p. 409.

Shakeel, M.A. 2000. Control of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) by the extracts of different plants (Neem, Datura, Ak) and their effect on plant growth variables. MSc. thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Sharma, H.K., D. Prasad and P. Sharma. 2006. Bio-management of Meloidogyne incognita infesting Okra. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 14: 191-193.

Sharma, N. and P.C. Trivedi. 2002. Screening of leaf extracts of some plants for their nematicidal and fungicidal properties against Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 16: 21-28.

Shaukat, S. S., I. A. Siddiqui, G. H. Khan and M.J. Zaki. 2002. Nematicidal and allelopathic potential of Argemone mexicana, a tropical weed. Plant and Soil, 245: 239-47.

Shaukat, S.S. and I.A. Siddiqui. 2001. Effect of some phenolic compounds on survival, infectivity and population density of Meloidogyne javanica in Mung-bean. Nematologia Mediterranea, 29: 123-126.

Shonle, I. and J. Bergelson. 2000. Evolutionary ecology of the tropane alkaloids of Datura stramonium L.(Solanaceae). Evolution, 54: 778-788.

Siddiqui, A. 2017. Studies on the use of seeds of some indigenous plants for the control of root-knot nematodes. PhD. thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Sidhu, H.S., V. Kumar and M. R. Madhu. 2017. Eco-Friendly Management of Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) crop. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 5: 569-574.

Siji, J.V., C.A. Jayaprakas, M.S. Sheela and C. Mohandas. 2010. Efficacy of Cleome viscosa L. against Meloidogyne incognita infestation in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 43: 151-156.

Sikora, R.A. and J. Bridge. 2005. Nematodes parasites of vegetables. in S. Gowen, P. Quénéhervé and M. Luc (eds.), Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture (CAB International, Wallingford (GBR)).

Singh, A. U., D. Prasad and I.K. Kushwaha. 2017. Effect of chopped Datura stramonium leaf against Meloidogyne incognita on Mung-bean. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 25: 448-449.

Singh, S. and D. Prasad. 2010. Management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sunflower through botanicals. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 18: 220-222.

Singh, S., B. Singh and C. Sellaperumal. 2015. Effect of Botanical Extracts and Purpureocillium lilacinum on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Infection and Growth of Okra. Indian Journal of Nematology, 45: 217-224.

Singh, S.P. and L. S. Devi. 2012. Management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with some plant extracts. Current Nematology, 23: 65-72.

Stirling, G. 1991.Biological control of plant parasitic nematodes: progress, problems and prospects/by Graham Stirling. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 282 p.

Sundararaju, P. and I. Cannayane. 2002. Antinemic activity of plant extracts against Pratylenchus coffeae Infecting Banana. Indian Journal of Nematology, 32:121-124.

Sundararaju, P., B. Padmanaban and S. Sathiamoorthy. 2003. Efficacy of certain botanicals against root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae in Banana. Nematologia Mediterranea, 31: 201-205.

Susan, A.H. and E.M. Noweer. 2005. Management of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Eggplant with some Plant Extracts. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 33: 65-72.

Thoden, T. C., J. Hallmann and M. Boppre. 2009. Effects of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids on the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 123: 27-36.

Timm, L., D. Pearson and B. Jaffee. 2001. Nematode-trapping fungi in conventionally and organically managed corn-tomato rotations. Mycologia, 93: 25-29.

Tiyagi, S. A. and M. M. Alam. 1995. Efficacy of oil-seed cakes against plant-parasitic nematodes and soil-inhabiting fungi on Mung-bean and Chickpea. Bioresource Technology, 51: 233-239.

Tsialtas, J.T., E. Kostoglou, D. Lazari and I. G. Eleftherohorinos. 2018. Annual Datura accessions as source of alkaloids, oil and protein under Mediterranean conditions. Industrial Crops, 121: 187-194.

Umar, I. and P. A. Ngwamdai. 2015. Evaluation of Leaf Powder and Extract of Datura Stramonium in Controlling Root Knot Nematode [Meloidogyne Javanica (Chitwood) 1949] on Sweet Melon in Yola, Adamawa State. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental & Biological Sciences, 3: 96-100.

Upadhyay, K.D., K. Dwivedi and S. K. Uttam. 2007. Role of Plant Parts and Their Extracts in the Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Nematology, 37: 197-98.

Verma, A.C. and M. N. Khan. 2004. Potentiality of botanicals for managing Meloidogyne incognita in Ocimum canum. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 12: 464-465.

Wen, Y., S. L. Meyer, E. P. Masler, F. Zhang, Ji. Liao, X. Wei and D. J. Chitwood. 2013. Nematotoxicity of drupacine and a cephalotaxus alkaloid preparation against the plant‐parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Pest Management Science, 69: 1026-1033.

Youssef, M.M.A. and A.M.S. Lashein. 2013. Efficacy of different medicinal plants as green and dry leaves and extracts of leaves on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infecting Eggplant. Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2: 10-14.

Zarina, B. 2007. Management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on Banana plantation in Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 25: 73-78.

Zarina, B., A. Ghaffar and M.A. Maqbool. 2006. Effect of plant extracts in the control of Meloidogyne javanica root-knot nematode on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Pakistan Journal of Nematology,24: 199–203.

Zarina, B., A. Ghaffar and M.A. Maqbool.2003. Effect of plant extracts in the control of Meloidogyne javanica root-knot nematode on Brinjal. Pakistan



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ramadan Abdelmoneim Bakr

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.