Muhammad Ijaz, Amir Afzal, Sayad R. Ali, Hafiz H. Nawaz, Rubab Altaf, Fakeha T. Jannat, Sairah Syed


Aflatoxins are metabolites mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A parasiticus habituating in soil and contaminating crop’s produce throughout food chain from field, food factory to market and table. In groundnut Aflatoxins are considered to be a danger to human health, worldwide food safety and restricting the trade of produce of crop worldwide. Elimination of aflatoxin is not possible, however application of several pre-harvest and postharvest techniques can mitigate aflatoxin contamination. Present study has been conducted to investigate impact of application of different soil amendments viz; farm yard manure (FYM), cereal crop residue (CCR), and gypsum (GYP) in combination or alone at time of sowing and 50 days after sowing (DAS) to alleviate aflatoxin contamination in Groundnut under rainfed conditions. Experiment was conducted at two locations (Chakwal & Attock). Data of some chemical and physical soil properties i.e., electrical conductivity, potential of hydrogen, percentage of organic matter, available phosphorous (ppm), available potassium, saturation percentage and texture of the field before planting were recorded. Aflatoxin quantity was determined by using optical density value (OD) of enzymatic analysis of groundnut samples. Although all the amendments reduced aflatoxin significantly as compared with control but variation among various amendments was not significant. Maximum decrease of aflatoxin was observed in FYM (60.8%) followed by Gypsum (58.4%). It is worth to note amendments in soil not only reduced aflatoxin but enhanced the yield as well.


Aflatoxin B1; Soil amendments; Cereal crop residue; Farm yard manure; Gypsum; Pre-harvest management

Full Text:



Bairagi, M. D., A. A. David, T. Thomas and P. C. Gurjar. 2017. Effect of different level of N P K and gypsum on soil properties and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) var. Jyoti. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 984-991.

Batte, M. T. and D. L. Forster. 2015. Old is New Again: The Economics of Agricultural Gypsum Use. Journal of American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, 2015: 56-74.

Brown, L.R. 2018. Aflatoxins in food and feed impacts, risks, and management strategies, GCAN Policy Note 9, June. International Food Research Institute. Washington.DC.

Bullerman, L. B. 1983. Effect of Potassium sorbate on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Food Protection, 46: 940-942.

Chen, L. and W. A. Dick. 2011. Gypsum as an agricultural amendment. General Use Guidelines. The Ohio State University Extension Bulletin945.

Cox, F. R., G. A. Sullivan and C. K. Martin .1976. Effect of calcium and irrigation treatments on peanut yield, grade and seed quality. Peanut Science, 3:81-85.

Dania, V. O. and S. E. Eze. 2020. Using Trichoderma species in combination with cattle dung as soil amendment improves yield and reduces pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in groundnut. AGRIVITA. Journal of Agricultural Science, 42: 449-461.

Davis, N. D. and U. L. Diener. 1967. Inhibition aflatoxin synthesis by p-Aminobenzoic acid, potassium sulfite and potassium fluoride. Applied Microbiology, 15: 1517-1518.

Diener, U. L., R. J. Cole, T. H. Sanders, G. A. Payne, L. S. Lee and M. A. Klich. 1987. Epidemiology of aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 25: 240-270.

Drott, M. T., B. P. Lazzaro, D. L. Brown, I. Carbone and M. G. Milgroom. 2017. Balancing selection for aflatoxin in Aspergillus flavus is maintained through interference competition with, and fungivory by insects. Proceeding of Royal Society of Biological Sciences, 284: 20172408.

Eche, C. O., M. B. Vabi, E. J. Ekefan, H. A. Ajeigbe and F. A. Ocholi. 2017. Evaluation of different fertilizer sources for the management of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southern guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5: 967-976.

Escobar, M. E.O. and N.V. Hue. 2008. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure amended soils of Hawaii. Bioresource Technology, 99:8649-8654.

Ezekiel, C. N., A. Ortega-Beltran, E. O. Oyedeji, J. Atehnkeng, P. Kössler, F. Tairu, I. Hoeschle-Zeledon, P. Karlovsky, P. J. Cotty and R. Bandyopadhyay. 2019. Aflatoxin in chili peppers in Nigeria: extent of contamination and control using atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus genotypes as biocontrol agents. Toxins, 11: 429.

FAO. 1996. Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action: world food summit 13-17 November 1996. Rome: FAO.

Gebreselassie, R., A. Dereje and H. Solomon. 2014. On-farm pre harvest agronomic management practices of Aspergillus infection on groundnut in Abergelle, Tigray. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, 5: 1-6.

Gong, Y. Y., A. Hounsa, S. Egal, P. C. Turner, A. E. Sutcliffe, A. J. Hall, K. Cardwell and C. P. Wild. 2004. Post weaning exposure to aflatoxin results in impaired child growth: a longitudinal study in Benin, West Africa. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112:1334–1338.

Hell, K. and C. Mutegi. 2011. Aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in key crops of Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Microbiological Research, 5: 459-466.

Jacoby, R., M. Peukert, A. Succurro, A. Koprivova and S. Kopriva. 2017. The role of soil microorganisms in plant mineral nutrition-current knowledge and future directions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8: 1617.

Jain, M., B. P. Pathak, A. C. Harmon, B. L. Tillman and M. Gallo. 2011. Calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) expression during fruit development in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under Ca2+ - sufficient and -deficient growth regimens. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168: 2272-2277.

Jiang, Y., P.E. Jolly, P. Preko, J. Wang, W. O. Ellis, T. D. Phillips and J. H. Williams. 2008. Aflatoxin-related immune dysfunction in health and in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. Journal of Immunology Research, 2008: 790309.

Jolly, P. E. 2014. Aflatoxin: does it contribute to an increase in HIV viral load? Future Microbiology, 9: 121–124.

Kabir, R., S. Yeasmin, A. K. M. M. Islam and M. R. Sarkar. 2013. Effect of phosphorus, calcium and boron on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), International Journal of Bio-Sciences and Bio-Technology, 5: 51-60.

Kumar, P., D. K. Mahato, M. Kamle, T. K. Mohanta and S. G. Kang. 2017. Aflatoxins: a global concern for food safety, human health and their management. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7: 2170.

Medina, A., M. K. Gilbert, B. M. Mack, G. R. OBrian, A. Rodriguez, D. Bhatnagar, G. Payne and N. Magan. 2017. Interactions between water activity and temperature on the Aspergillus flavus transcriptome and aflatoxin B1 production. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 256: 36–44.

Marchese,S., A. Polo, A. Ariano, S. Velotto, S. Costantini and L. Severino. 2018. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: biological properties and their involvement in cancer development. Toxins, 10(6):214.

Mona. E., Z. Mashak, A. Heshmati, M. Shokrzadeh and A. S. M. Nejad. 2015. Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in Iranian rice by ELISA method, Toxin Reviews, 34(3): 125-128.

Morton, A. G. 1981. History of Botanical Science: An Account of the Development of Botany from Ancient Times to the Present Day. London; New York: Academic Press.

Muller, D. B., C. Vogel, Y. Bai and J. A. Vorholt. 2016. The plant microbiota: systems-level insights and perspectives. Annual Review of Genetics, 50: 211–234.

Pankaj, S. K., H. Shi and K. M. Keener. 2018. A review of novel physical and chemical decontamination technologies for aflatoxin in food. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 71: 73–83.

Payne, G. A. and M. P. Brown. 1998. Genetics and physiology of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 36: 329–362.

Pleadin, J., A. Vulić, N. Perši, M. Škrivanko, B. Capek and Ž. Cvetnić. 2014. Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in maize sampled from Croatian farms and feed factories during 2013. Food Control, 40: 286-291.

Reding, C. L. C., M. A. Harrison and C.K. Kvien. 1993. Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin synthesis on florunner peanuts grown in gypsum-supplemented soil. Journal of Food Protection, 56: 593- 611.

Tajik, H., S. M. Rohani and M. Moradi. 2007. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in raw and commercial pasteurized milk in Urmia, Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 10:4103-7.

Udomkun, P., A. N. Wiredu, M. Nagle, J. Müller, B. Vanlauwe and R. Bandyopadhyay. 2017. Innovative technologies to manage aflatoxins in foods and feeds and the profitability of application- A review. Food Control, 76: 127-138.

Waliyar, F. V., C. Umeh, A. Traore, M. Osiru, B.R. Ntare, B. Diarra, O. Kodio, K. Vijay Krishna Kumar and H. Sudini. 2015. Prevalence and distribution of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Mali, West Africa. Crop Protection, 70: 1–7.

Waliyar, F., L.P. Kumar, A. Traore, B.R. Ntare, B. Diarra and O. Kodio. 2008. pre-and postharvest management of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. In Leslie et al. (eds) Mycotoxins: Detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade. Pp. 209-218. CAB International, Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, UK.

Waliyar, F., M. Osiru, H.K. Sudini and S.M.C. Njoroge. 2013. Reducing aflatoxins in groundnuts through integrated management and biocontrol. In: Aflatoxins: Finding solutions for improved food safety-reducing aflatoxins in groundnuts through integrated management and biocontrol. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006-1002 USA.

Waliyar, F., P. Craufurd, K. V. Padmaja, R. K. Reddy, S. V. Reddy, S. N. Nigam, and P. L. Kumar. 2006. Effect of soil application of lime, crop residue and biocontrol agents on pre-harvest Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination in groundnut. In: International conference on groundnut aflatoxin management and genomics, 5-10 November 2006, Gungdon Hotel, Guangzhou, China.

Wild, C. P. and R. Montesano. 2009. A model of interaction: aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention. Cancer Lettr, 286: 22–28.

Williams, J. H., T. D. Phillips, P. E. Jolly, J. K. Stiles, C. M. Jolly and D. Aggarwal. 2004. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: A review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80: 1106-22.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Amir Afzal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.