Salman Ahmad, Nazakat Hussain, Malik A. Rehman, Irfan Ahmad, Yasir Ali, Muhammad E.U. Haq, Ikram U. Haq, Kamra Mahmood


The study's objectives were to report the fungal diseases of sunflower hybrids present in different areas of Punjab and to record their incidence in these areas. For this purpose, surveys of sunflowers' summer crops were conducted invarious areas of Punjab (Chakwal, Faisalabad, and Sargodha), Pakistan, during October 2020, for the collection of data. Disease incidence (DI) was calculated by counting the number of plants infected with different fungal diseases and dividing them by the total number of plants. The incidence of leaf spot was recorded maximum in Chakwal (40%), Faisalabad (34%), and Sargodha (40%), whereas the prevalence of phomapsis was lowest in Chakwal (24%), Faisalabad (22%), and Sargodha (20%). Leaf spot and leaf blight were with high incidence and widely distributed in three regions of the Punjab than remaining other fungal diseases. The other diseases observed in these areas were charcoal rot, phoma black stem, rust, verticillium wilt, downy mildew, powdery mildew and phomopisis stem canker. A significant difference in the incidence of fungal diseases was also observed in different locations. The current study provides baseline information about the prevalence of fungal diseases in different areas of Punjab. It will help in design new studies regarding these diseases so that future epidemics of these fungal diseases can be avoided. 


Incidence; sunflower; charcoal rot; phoma black stem rust; verticillium wilt.

Full Text:



Acimovic, M. 1988. Sunflower disease mapping in Europe and some countries outside Europe in the period 1984-1986. Helia, 11: 41-49.

Berghuis, B., M. Gilley, J. Halvorson, B. Hansen, B. Schatz, S. Fitterer, S.G. Markell. 2018. Evaluation of fungicides for management of rust on oil seed and confection sunflower hybrids. In International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2018: Plant Health in A Global Economy. APSNET.

Bhutta, A. R., M.H.R. Bhatti, S.I. Ahmad, I. Ahmad. 1993. Prevalence and incidence of sunflower diseases in Pakistan. Helia 16: 93-98.

Donald, P.A., J.R. Venette, T.J. Gulya. 1987. Relationship between Phoma macdonaldii and premature death of sunflower in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 71(5): 466-468.

Gilley, M.A. 2017. Downy Mildew of Sunflowers: Establishment of Baseline Sensitivity to Azoxystrobin and Monitoring for the Development of Fungicide Resistance and Plasmopara Halstedii Virulence Phenotype Changes. Master Thesis, North Dakota State University.

Gulya, T.J., A. Mengistu, L. Osborne, R. Harveson. 2011. Distribution and Incidence of Verticillium and Charcoal Rot in six states as determined by soil bioassays. In Proceedings of the 33rd Sunflower Research Workshop Forum. Fargo, ND.

Gulya, T., R. Harveson, F. Mathew, C. Block, S. Thompson, H. Kandel, S. Markell. 2019. Comprehensive disease survey of US sunflower: Disease trends, research priorities and unanticipated impacts. Plant Disease, 103(4): 601-618.

Harveson, R., F. Mathew, T. Gulya, S. Markell, C. Block, S. Thompson. 2018. Sunflower stalk diseases initiated through leaf infections. Plant Health Progress, 19(1): 82-91.

Harveson, R., F. Mathew, T. Gulya, S. Markell, C. Block, S. Thompson. 2018. Sunflower stalk diseases initiated through leaf infections. Plant Health Progress, 19(1): 82-91.

Khaleghizadeh, A. 2011. Effect of morphological traits of plant, head and seed of sunflower hybrids on house sparrow damage rate. Crop Protection, 30(3): 360-367.

Kunduraci, B. S., A. Bayrak, M. Kiralan. 2010. Effect of essential oil and extracts from oregano (Origanum onites L.) leaves on the oxidative stability of refined sunflower oil. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22(2): 1377-1386.

Lamey, H. A. (1993). 1992 Sunflower grower survey of pest problems and pesticide use in Kansas, Minnesota and North Dakota. Extension report (USA).

Lamey, H. A. (1996). 1994 sunflower grower survey of pest problems and pesticide use in Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Mahmood, A., M.I. Awan, S. Sadaf, A. Mukhtar, X. Wang, S. Fiaz, S. Fahad. 2022. Bio-diesel production of sunflower through sulphur management in a semi-arid subtropical environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(9): 13268-13278.

Mathew, F.M., K.M. Alananbeh, J.G. Jordahl, S.M. Meyer, L.A. Castlebury, T.J. Gulya, S.G. Markell. 2015. Phomopsis stem canker: A reemerging threat to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States. Phytopathology, 105(7): 990-997.

Mirza, M.S. and Beg, A. 1983. Diseases of sunflower in Pakistan. Helia 6: 55-56.

Muller, M.H., M. Latreille, C. Tollon. 2011. The origin and evolution of a recent agricultural weed: population genetic diversity of weedy populations of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Spain and France. Evolutionary Applications, 4(3): 499-514.

Sackston, W.E. 1978. Sunflower disease mapping in Europe and adjacent Mediterranean countries. Helia, 1: 21-31.

Seghatoleslami, M.J., R. Bradaran, E. Ansarinia, S.G. Mousavi. 2012. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen level on yield, yield components and some morphological traits of sunflower. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(5): 1551-1555.

Steel, R.G.O., J.H. Torrie, D. Dickey. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 3rd (ed.), Mc Graw-Hill, New York. U.S.A.

Vicente, P.M. and A. Zazzerini. 1997. Current status of sunflower diseases in Mozambique. Helia, 20(27): 31-38.

Vilvert, E., M. Lana, P. Zander, S. Sieber. 2018. Multi-model approach for assessing the sunflower food value chain in Tanzania. Agricultural Systems, 159: 103-110.

Yaseen, A., A.R. Niazi, A. Zulfiqar, A. Riaz, M. Riaz, I. Fiza. 2022. Morphological and molecular characterization of Golovinomyces ambrosiae on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Pakistan, with its impact on plant metabolites and relative Mycorrhizal status. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 129(2): 253-260.

Zazzerini, A. 1980. Sunflower diseases in Italy. Helia, 3: 45-46.

Zazzerini, A., M. Monotti, L. Tosi. 1987. Results of a two year investigation on the most important pathogens in Italy. Helia-Scientific Bulletin of the FAO Research Network on Sunflower (Romania).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 yasir Ali

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology
ISSN: 1019-763X (Print), 2305-0284 (Online).
© 2013 Pak. J. Phytopathol. All rights reserved.